A ConceptualCritical Analysis on The Dead Book in Saidiya Hartmans Lose Your Mother

Liberty was a seed that if planted in poor soil failed to vegetate into maturity. It was the child of reason. Before men can benefit from the wisdom of laws, it was necessary they should have some idea of freedom (Hartman, 2007). These excerpts from The Dead Book in Saidiya Hartmans Lose Your Mother A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route indeed tells us the importance of truly and clearly understanding ones ancestral past in order to give greater value to what he or she is enjoying at present. These quotes signify Hartmans deep sentiments of not truly knowing her true identity because of a disconnection of her past (African) and present (African American), a cut off between her home (Ghana) and exile (America) a separation between ones kinship and identity and  the consequences of detaching a child from the mothers womb before natural birth  (Schmidt, 2009).

In this eloquent, thoughtful, deeply affecting and heartbreaking chapter accounting the plight of the slaves in the Atlantic slave trade, Hartman gave us a glimpse of the horrible history of Atlantic slave trading from the fifteenth to the twentieth century, while searching for her kin in Ghana, a West African country bordering on the Gulf of Guinea. In The Dead Book, Hartman focuses on all the atrocities experienced by the slaves in their route to the Atlantic slave trade. These were narrated and exposed in the aim of making the world conscious on the ill, inhumane and unjust treatment experienced by the blacks in the hands of their captors. As mentioned in this chapter, the slaves were treated just like any other cargoes (commodities) and we are talking here about non humans. Some slaves were thrown at sea alive to minimize the captains losses and in order to claim for insurance which is worth  30 for each slave lost to the perils of the sea (Hartman, 2007). The highlight as mentioned in the chapter is the horrifying story of the fourteen-year-old slave girl, who was suspended alternately by the leg while being consistently whipped until she died. She was murdered aboard the Recovery ship by the captain. Deaths of the slaves in this ship were treated ordinarily, not really different at all from a rotten fruit.

The narratives in this book have shown us that the lives of the slaves on board the Recovery (ship) were nothing different from animals and are just within the hands and mercy of the captain. It is him who decides who stays, who lives and who dies unless the slaves themselves decide to end their lives for not having borne the pain inflicted to them physically and emotionally. No value was given to their precious lives except that they are worth every penny once sold. The slaves were denied the opportunities of being respected and considered equal just like any other members of the human race. They are purely considered as goods, treated like animals, whose purpose is just to satisfy their masters. The men were as good as workers who need to perform hard labor while the women are being treated as not any different at all from whores, forced to have sex with the ships crew even if its against their will. What is even worse is that these deaths dont have the chance to be known by the public because they are not listed as part of the Dead Book, a book where all the casualties during the ships journey are supposedly listed. This book plays an important role in the journey of the slaves for there are many wasted lives that have not been published in this book and the sea is the only living witness to all of these.

In the Dead Book the true conditions and experiences of the Africans during the period when slave trading was on its heights were narrated and exposed.  It aims to awaken the consciousness of the world on the existence of racism against the blacks and the injustices they have experienced in the hands of the people who considered themselves superior and powerful  the whites. Indeed, the Dead Books revelations has served its purpose and made us all realize that it requires one to fully understand what has gone in the past in order to appreciate the present conditions and to be able to give great value to the freedom being enjoyed at present  a freedom that the slaves on board the Recovery ship never had the chance to know its existence.
The fate of small people and their interaction with the system is the main theme of all the three novels Melvilles Bartleby The Scrivener A Tale of Wall Street Gogols The Overcoat and Thurbers The Catbird Seat. The main character of every novel reflects the main characteristics of the times when the novel was written. Al the three men  Bartleby, Akakiy Akakievitch Bashmatchkin and Erwin Martin possess similar characteristics they are industrious, diligent, mild mannered, follow precise routines and working plebian, mundane capacities. However, every character possesses the individual features also, and these features are unique for every of them. Thus, Bartleby obtains hardly understandable power on his boss Akakiy transforms to ghost and starts haunting the people on Saints-Petersburg of Russia, and Erwin Martin wins in opposition with his female tormentor. In this research I tried to analyze the similarities and differences of these characters, as well as styles and plots of these stories, authors lifestyles and their sense of the times.
Melville, Gogol and Thurber

To compare the writing styles of these three writers, it is worth mentioning that Gogol lived in Russia in the first half of 19th century, Melville was the American novelist of the second half of the 19th century, and Thurber wrote his short stories in the middle of 20th century. Gogol is considered as the father of Russian realism, though in his latest works the elements of mysticism and romanticism appeared. Unlike Gogol, Melville was the bright representative of American dark romanticism, and short stories of Thurber can be characterized as the works of satirical realism. Thus, despite the common features of their heroes, the researchers should take in attention the different time and literary genres of these writers.
Akakiy, Bartleby and Martin 
Three heroes of three different novels are the clerks. That is why the satirical reflection of the corrupt bureaucracy is the common features for these novels. Akakiy Akakievitch Bashmatchkin, the main character of Gogols tragicomedy The Overcoat works  in some office of an unnamed bureaucratic department. As Gogol begins the story, In the department of  but it is better not to mention the departmentin order to avoid all unpleasantness, it will be better to describe the department in question only as a certain department.
Described as about fifty years old and of short of stature, somewhat pocked marked, red-haired and shortsighted with a bald forehead, wrinkled cheeks and a sanguine complexion his  official status being a perpetual titular councillor. One whom none could remember when and how he entered the department, and who appointed him. He was always seen in the same place, with the same attitude, the same occupation. Shown no respect, he was laughed at and made fun of and was treated by his superiors in a coolly despotic fashion.  In addition, he often he had the misfortune of walking under windows when trash was being thrown out so that he always bore on his hat scraps of melon rinds and other such articles.

An industrious and faithful worker, he lived entirely for his duties, laboring with love. He did not socialize with his colleagues, nor did he engage in any social activities after work, instead he went home and did even more copying. For, outside copying,  it appeared that nothing existed for him. A peaceful man, content with his lot in life, he desired nothing else., even when a kindly superior offered to give him something more important than copying, he declined, and after that, he was left him to copy on forever. In these ways, he represents the commonordinary man, working in the bureaucratic order of 19th Century Russia.  However, the same passion to copying can be noticed for the Bartleby, Melvilles hero. And even Martin, the most reasonable and down-to-earth character, works in the department of filling for 22 years, which means he wants nothing more in his life.

The deeper analysis, however, reflects the different motivation of the heroes. Thus, Akakiy is willing to afford a new coat. The new aim in his aimless life makes him livelier, his character grew firmerfrom his face, gait and indecision, all hesitating and wavering traits disappeared. Fire even gleamed in his eyes. He is excited for the first time as he plans his new cloak with the one eyed, often drunken tailor, Petrovitch.  He has got the new sense of the hope in his life. New coat even made him going to a party, after which Akakiy lost his reassured new coat. The absence of help from the police and prominent person and neglecting of Akakiys services killed him. Unlike the Bartleby, however, Akakiy didnt finish his existence with his death he transformed to the ghost and started to attack people wearing new overcoats.  Soon after his death, a ghost is sighted who steals cloaks from passersby, including that of the prominent personage, whom the ghost declares, Ah, here you are at lastI need your cloak you took no trouble about mine, but reprimanded me so now give up on your own. Then, the ghost disappeared never to be seen again. Cloakless, the prominent personage returns home and changes his ways, accusing his under officials, only after he heard their full story.  With such mystical ending the small man on Gogols novel shows his protest against the indifferent bureaucratic system. As was stated above, one of the themes of The Overcoat is Mans inhumanity against his fellow man, as well as the inhumanity of the organized bureaucracy, which pays no heed to the hard worker, or their needs, such as a warm cloak in the colder parts of Russia. It is not until he dies and becomes a ghost that Akakiy gains any real power. Because of the circumstances of modern life in czarist, corrupt, bureaucratic culture, this theme of inhumanity is a common one in 19th Century Russian literature. Much of which was inspired by Gogol, who writing during Czar Nicholas corrupt reign, often satirized Russian bureaucracy, and was eventually exiled for it. As Johnson writes, In the character of Akakiy Akakievitch, Gogol gave the world its first modern common man, a man who is overwhelmed by the complex bureaucracy of which he is part (1747).

The theme of inhumanity is also raised in Melvilles Bartleby the Scrivener A Story of Wall Street, but the genre of dark romanticism determines the necessity of pessimistic ending. Bartleby dies and nobody cares of his death except the old lawyer who is the narrator if this story. The story begins in the lawyers office, as he explains who he is, and what he does. Here, we get an image of a man who does quite well but is content leaving things as is, does not hold much ambition, nor does he want to change anything. This is apparent as he describes his employees, and their eccentricities, which frustrate him but he finds it easier to deal with them, rather than hire new and perhaps less temperamental and more responsible clerks.   It is into this rather chaotic, yet well-balanced world that the silent, mysterious, pallidly neat, pitiably respectable and incurably forlorn figure Bartleby enters. Needing another scrivener to attend to his increasing business, the lawyer hires him on the spot and makes a work area for him in his own office. We first find Bartleby to be though quiet, he diligently does an extraordinary quantity of writingsilently, palely and mechanically. However, when the lawyer requests he perform other work besides mere copying, Bartleby replies  I prefer not, which as we find out becomes in end all and be all catch phrase, so much so that he soon prefers not to do any work at all, and the rest of the office begin to use the phrase themselves.

In time, Bartleby decides not to do any work and just stands there, looking at the office wall, day after day. Yet, the lawyer, with his passive nature and avoidance of conflict, still cannot bring himself to fire Bartleby. Instead, he chooses to move himself and his office to another location, away from Bartleby, who remained in the building until the property owner sent him to prison for vagrancy. Upon his death, we find that Bartleby had previously lost his job as a sub-clerk in a dead letter office, which the lawyer believes could explain his strange behavior, leading him to exclaim, Ah Bartleby, ah the humanity

Within Bartleby the Scrivener, we find characters devoted to their existence, whether misery or indigestion or passivity, intent on the daily routine, not looking to change or improve their lot. As Bartleby himself states, At present, I would prefer not to make any change at all.  Actually, overall, he prefers not to do anything - not to proof, or even copy, or once in prison to eat. In fact, he prefers not to live, as he dies in a fetal position in the prison courtyard.  

Bartleby represents the isolation, hopelessness and inhumanity of the modern 19th Century world. He is described as a ghost, pale, pallid, wraith like, cadaverous. He does not eat except for a few ginger nuts, barely speaks, does not socialize, does not go outside, and does not have any friends or family. In the end he does not work, and finally does not even live. He is seemingly not human, nor alive. He is just a worker bee of the office building, staying there until he is in an actual prison. Among the three characters this one is the most lifeless. It seems that Melville tried to describe the fate of classical romantic hero in the cruel modern life. Bartlebys life is useless, and which is more, he makes nothing to make it sense. If the life of Akakiy was ruined with the loss of longed-for aim and the absence of the support, the life of Bartleby had no aims and support (in particular from his boss) couldnt change the situation. The problem of Akakiy was in the system the problem of Bartleby was in his nature.  Indeed, it is only Bartleby who decides his fate by preferring not to.

In these ways, Melville comments upon and satirizes his times. Attacking its smug morality, its pomposity, sentimental , patronizing, attitude toward individual citizens, its simplistic view of the complex and the ambiguous, persistent ignorance of its responsibilities (164). He could also be commenting upon the literary world of the time, and his own waning popularity.

Some say the Melville wrote Bartleby in response to the recent criticisms of his work, which in effect ruined his career, particularly that of Fitz James OBriens severe criticism of his most recent, Pierre (Bergmann 139). Bartleby may represent Melville himself, and the dead letters, the perception of his own writings.  In this way, Bartleby becomes about the isolation of an artist in a materialistic society which not only is indifferent to its writers, but also bent on their destruction (Adams, 163).

Some also posit that since Melville often wrote of his own experiences, that the characters were based on real life figures, from his literary life. Namely, Cornelius Mathews with his histrionic language and posturing as Turkey, Edgar Allen Poe with his testiness and frustrated ambition as Nippers, and Melvilles patron, mentor and friend, editor of The Literary World  Everet Duycknick as the narrator (Wells). Accordingly, as Duycknick and many other literary men of the time held law degrees prior to becoming critics, Melville may be telling us that one of the problems of the free-thinking artist in nineteenth-century America was to win acceptance by the narrow, legalistic minds of so many critics trained in law (Wells).

Thus, two of three heroes lost in the opposition with the system, though Akakiy had a chance to revenge himself after his death. Anyway they couldnt resist the system (Bartleby possibly didnt want to) and died. Martin, the character of Thurbers The Catbird Seat, differs from these two heroes because he was able to win and save his position. As two other characters, Martin is the mild mannered, neat, quiet, polite, keeps to himself common man who lives his life with routine and not much socializing. He is described by his co workers as infallible, the most efficient worker, and praised for his temperate habits and exemplary manner. He is content with his life the way it is, orderly and methodical, and has worked at the same company for twenty-two years. Martin isnt an evil man, but when Mrs. Ulgine Barrows starts pressing him, he starts thinking about her murder.  However, the situation forces him to find the unknown sides of his nature - that of a cunning and imaginative spirit. For, when finding that there is no murder weapon in the house, he uses his own reputation as an exemplary, tee-totaller to achieve her demise. While visiting her, he drinks scotch and smokes, stating that he does so all the time, and declares that he uses heroin and is in the process of making a bomb to blow up Mr. Fitweiler. He also uses one of her phrases, saying that he is sitting in the catbird seat.  With this intrigue Martin has achieved his goal by eliminating her and restoring order without the use of violence, but by his wits. As Canfield-Reisman writes,  The silent self-control which makes Martin a good file clerk ensures his victory for hes too disciplined to tell anyone what he has done, ever to reveal his secret self (338). Accordingly, in The Catbird Seat, it is the common man who is in control, and does so by the stability of his own reputation. Though faced with chaos and insecurity, it is not the bureaucratized social order that affects Martin it is women.

The Catbird Seat does however also involve the isolation of the modern world. This is demonstrated in that no one sees him when he buys cigarettes, even though it was the most crowded store on Broadway. No one notices him sharpening his pencils and polishing his glasses. He eats alone with the financial pages every night, and then takes a solitary walk through the city streets. Yet, it is this isolation and the invisibility of modern, city life that is Martins salvation, not his downfall, as it is for Bartleby and Akaiky. For, Martin knows that no one is looking closely at him or his actions, and thus he can carry out his plan, without being seen. Thus, the traditional role of small man helped Martin to achieve his goal and to keep his position.

In all three stories, we find the common man faced with a modern existence of systems, offices and bureaucracies. Moreover, we also find the inefficiency of these systems. For, in all, the employers, officials and the higher ups are completely ineffectual to solve any of the problems. In The Overcoat, the sentry guard, chief of police, the prominent personage or any of his bosses, or even the doctor offer to help Akakiy. In Bartleby, the lawyer is resolved to his chaotic and perhaps inefficient work environment, blaming it on his employees foibles, without any sense of his own responsibility. He has no authority over Bartleby, and lets him completely do his own thing, even to the point of not working and just staring at a wall all day. In The Catbird Seat, the head of the company, Mr. Fitweiler, lets Ulgine Barrows, who he has utmost faith in, do whatever she likes, though it did require his approval.

That these stories, though written by different authors, in different cultures and at different times, involve very similar themes and characters, demonstrates that the modern world is an entity, as is the human condition, known to all. However all three novels have different endings, which related to different genres and lifestyles of the authors. The romantic hero of Melville has to die because he has nothing to live for in the modern world. The poor small clerk of Gogol cant resist the system but he tries to revenge. The cunning hero of Thurber doesnt allow to break him. The similarities and differences of three novels allow researchers to speak about the fate of small man in different countries and times.


Emily Dickinsons My Life Closed Twice before its Close is a very brief lamentation that has to do with separation.  While one cannot normally equate the poet with the voice in the poem because the voice is an entirely different entity from the poet, it is easy to derive from this particular poem that the voice is experiencing some kind of emotional pain.

To note in the poem is how the voice uses the word close to represent death.  In the first line the voice states, My life closed twice before its close (1) suggesting that the voice had had two prior experiences before that are equal in impact as that of dying or the actual physical death.  Therefore, the two incidents the voice is referring to in the poem as the incidents where hisher life closes twice are events that carry the same amount of emotional strain as that associated with ones own physical death.  In effect, we have the voice in the poem saying that heshe had died two times already in the past and since these are not to be the real physical death because in reality nobody dies twice, then one can assume that these deaths are perhaps cessations of emotion or the death of a particular state of being such as joy.

In the next three lines, the voice writes, It yet remains to see  If Immortality unveil  A third event to me (2-4) suggesting that the speaker in the poem is anticipating a third similar event as implied earlier as the closing of life.  In effect, the voice is saying that even when heshe had already experienced two previous incidents that have had a great emotional impact heshe is expecting another such event to come about.  The question to these initial lines is aside from the implied assumptions that the closing of life in the poem is not actually physical death but grave emotional circumstances, where else in the poem does the voice give some clue as to the nature of these events

The implication of the nature of these events come in the last final stanzas of the poem where the voice writes, So huge, so hopeless to conceive  As these that twice befell. (5-6)  Here, we see that while the voice does not make a direct description of what the recent events actually were, the voice describes these events as huge and hopeless to conceive.  In other words, the voice suggests that it is useless for one to try and understand or know what these events are because all the voice knows is that they are huge.  However, the final beautiful lines of the poem state, Parting is all we know of heaven, And all we need of hell. (7-8) suggesting finally that in fact, the events mentioned by the voice to be the close of hisher life are events that have to do with physical separation, either by actual or physical death, or simply by distance.  Nevertheless, because the voice describes these events as all they know of heaven  the voice implies that the presence of whoever was lost in the poem is the only joy that heshe had ever known, and when the voice ends the poem with the final line, all we need of hell, the voice further fortifies the notion that in fact the events referred to are events that have great impact  separation in these final lines being equated with hell.  So, we see that in this very brief poem by Dickinson she packs in intense emotions that refer to the emotional death of a person because of separation that in fact, this emotional death can result to the sterility, hostility, and even the indifference of whosoevers life closes twice before its close. (1)

The Fairness of Bartleby

The story of Bartleby, the Scrivener, is the story of an attorney who is either so weak that he is unable to manage his own law office, or he is so mean that he forces other to deal with his left over problem, namely Bartleby.  However, when analyzing this short story by Herman Melville one can automatically see that the attorney  narrator is not mean, but frustrated.  In essence, he feels there is no other way in which to rid himself of the scrivener Bartleby.

The first thing that must be acknowledged is that this attorney  narrator has very little back bone and is not one for stressful situations.  This is apparent when he explains that he is an attorney that has never been before a jury or even in a courtroom (Melville 3).  He works on property titles and such that are only necessary to meet with clients in his office on Wall Street (Melville 5). Therefore, from the beginning the reader assumes that this man may be an attorney, but does not have the knack as other attorneys for fighting for their clients.  He prefers to write documents in regards to titles of property and mortgages.  In this sense, it is shown that is he all about the lack of conflict.

This is also shown in the way in which he deals with the two scriveners and the one errand boy that work for him in the beginning of the story.  Given nicknames, the reader does not know the employees other than by the nicknames, which seem to fit their personalities.  The first is Turkey.  He is an older man with a mild disposition in the morning and turbulent personality in the afternoon (Melville 6).  The other is Nippers, who is the exact opposite of Turkey.  In the sense that he is highly disagreeable in the morning while very industrious in the afternoon (Melville 11).  He even tries to talk Turkey into working only part time, but when he is reminded that he is about the same age, he can say nothing and gives in letting Turkey stay on full time (Melville 10).  It is at this point that one sees that this attorney  narrator is just happy that their eccentricities are at opposite times so that he does not need to deal with their irrational behaviors at the same time.
This leads to Bartleby.  He is hired after the attorney  narrator advertized for another scrivener.  Bartleby showed up and after just a few words was hired on the spot (Melville 18).  This is would seem was very rash, but the reader does not know exactly how rash this action is until later in the story.  In fact, if the reader believed that Turkey and Nipper were eccentric than Bartleby made them look like saints.  For Bartlebys favor saying was I prefer not to which is used continuously through out the story any time the attorney  narrator asks him to do something (Melville 21).  It eventually get to the point that Bartleby does not let the attorney  narrator into his own office suite (Melville 37), and does not leave when fired and no longer working (Melville 61).  It is at this point that the attorney  narrator not knowing what else to do, moves his office to another building leaving Bartleby to the new tenant (Melville 70).

It is only when the attorney  narrator returns to try to get Bartleby to leave the building that it becomes obvious that Bartleby has been hurt by the actions of the attorney  narrator.  However, it was not that Bartleby did not know his employer was moving, but he was told that he was not welcomed at the new office.  Bartleby was then told he was not welcomed with the new tenant or in the building (Melville 73).  Eventually Bartleby is taken to prison where he dies of starvation, but in no way can the attorney  narrator be held at fault (Melville 86).  He tried to help Bartleby, but Bartleby would not let himself be helped. He refused to work.  He refused to move.  He wanted to do what he wanted and listened to no one else.  Because of these actions, he pushed everyone away from him, even those people who tried to help him.  Bartleby lived in his own world, on his own time, and no one could change his mind or his actions.

Dealing with David Paterson and the Budget Problem

First of all I would like to say that Paterson got himself into a really big mess, something that could leave a negative mark on New York and most importantly ruin his career. The least that I could do as a Senior Policy Director is to try not to make matters worse for the guy. Also with his case regarding domestic violence, it would be best not to put him in a deeper hole he currently is in. As his media savvy policy director the best thing to do is to tell him the truth about his status, and give him the best options and recommendations that willat the very least get him out of bigger trouble and not letting the hole get any deeper and wider andmost importantly balancing the state budget.

It has been agreed upon that in the United States, it is very important to aim for balanced budgets as suggested by fiscal conservatism. One of the states that greatly suffer from this imbalance in budget is New York City. As Senior Policy Director, before giving Paterson my views on how to balance the budget, it is very important to consider three things, 1.) Income Tax2.) State Spending and 3.) Revenue. Having these threechecked out first will surely lead to a budget with very minimal or with no deficits or surplus. From these three important things he could come up with a plan.

Income Tax During Patersons term as governor in NYC, due to the global recession, many New Yorkers were found not to be paying their taxes because of cases of unemployment,it was also found out that a lot of people considered to be millionaires pay a certain amount of tax that when compared to how much they earn is just a grain of sand in a big sand box. As Senior Policy Director, I would suggest Gov. Paterson to impose a millionaires tax that would increase the tax being paid on high earners in New York. This will greatly help in state expenditure and avoiding deficits. An important note to give to Paterson regarding this possible recommendation is economic theory which says that it is economically favorable to increase taxes on those with high earning jobs than to decrease state spending. This is because people with high income normally use up only a portion of their earnings at a given year. While state expenditure on the other hand goes to labor, grant services and provides New Yorkers in need with moneySort of a situation with least pain and more gain approach.

State Spending The nextsuggestion I would have gave to Paterson is the way the state spends should cut down. As a basis, when Paterson was a state senator and lieutenant governor, state spending from 2004-2008 grew at less than 2.9 percent a year. Also at 2007 an article from the Business Council states that New York State governments per-capita spending in 2005 was the fourth highest in the nation and 43 percent above the national average.(Moran, 2007). Looking at these statistics, it is best to advise Paterson to cut down on the spending or at least follow my first suggestion which is to increase tax rates for high earners.

Revenue As a final suggestion to the budget problem, a very important thing to consider is proper finance. It is true that spending too much from the budget will mean good for services such as health care and education but as a consequence there will be a deficit in the state budget. The thing that Paterson must do, would be to provide the proper and fitting revenues to finance these initiatives. When tax revenues are allocated correctly, it could extinguish any type of budget gap in New York.

With regards to the bad story foreseen by Paterson, as a person that is in to news and media. I would suggest him to avoid media as much as possible. This does not mean that there will be no media coverage of him. He needs to avoid spontaneous media exposures and ambush interviews that would put him in the spot. But at the same time, he needs to aggressively counteract negative views about him. The way to do this is to show the media that despite issues and problems, he still goes on with his commitment to do what is right. The thing that must be prioritized is addressing to balance the budget. The recommendations I have given him will be good in making the masses look at him in a good way despite the bad stories and accusations he is facing. He can also make press releases on activities that he is connected with and the good work he is doing in other areas of his life such as being a family man, an artist, or his hobbies, or some other concerns in his job not related to the current issue. As a media savvy person, I would advise Paterson not to be present in media activities that he himself did not organize. He can project to the media that he is doing everything to address the major issue that people will most likely want to hear about which would also clean up his image as a good governor  issue on state budget.

News Sources
Moran, M. (2007). Analysis New Yorks state spending 43 percent above national average. New York The Business Council.

Essay 2
Robert Moses impact on New York

When being discussed in class, at the beginning I was amazed on who this guy was and what didtoNew York. But then, I had a feeling that he was somehow, just too good to be true.

His Greatest Achievement
Robert Moses as discussed in class can be considered as the master planner and master builder of New York. He is responsible for almost every known landmark in the city today. Looking at his record on the things that he built in the past 40 plus years, I can say it is very impressive, over 600 Playgrounds, 200 Tennis Courts, 600 Baseball Fields, thousands of houses,20 Roads, and 9 Bridges. Truly, Robert Moses is the shaper of New York City back then. It can be considered that what he has done in the past surely cannot be done in New York today. He had created infrastructures, roads and houses in a view to benefit the state and its people. He generated much money for the state and for himself as well as an urban planner in the city. He also became in good terms withthe city government, making him the official City Construction Coordinator and making himself very appealing to most of the people that benefited from his creations. He also had and was elected in 11 more different positions in the government during his peak in power. In the 20th century, New York City was under the Robert Moses era.

All of these numbers and achievements could make anyone be astounded but it could also make them feelskeptical. There has to besome kind of catch or there had to be a consequence for all of these. Unfortunately, there was, and it was something that affected the city of New York in a big way.

His Largest Failing
Moses rise to power in NYC marked the beginning of an era in the city. Being one of the most powerful, rich and influential persons in the state at that time, led to some negative effects. One of them is the thousands of evictions that occurred. Half a million people were evicted due to the demolition of houses to pave ways for Moses roads and highways. What was once a vision to help and benefit the people in NYC now became an individual thing for him- the need for power.He wanted to benefit from his works and no one else. He wanted to remain in power and control New York at his own terms and conditions. Because of that, many people fought against Moses, which was another failure for him, making enemies and having people oppose you because you dont listen to what they have to say. Probably the biggest failure he has done as was discussed in class was the 1964 Worlds Fair that failed miserably because the earnings from the park was not even able to cover for the expenses in building them. Overall, the fair was a disaster both financially and socially, he even tried to defend the fair, but to no avail. The failure of the fair marked the end of Robert Moses 44 year legacy in New York.

Lessons in Urban Planning
His mistake shows the real importance of being rational when it comes to planning, looking at all possible ways and outcomes, comparing and evaluating alternatives and also trying to forecast every consequences that might occur, something that Robert Moses missed out on. His legacy also taught me that it is important to listen to other peoples feedback because thats where you will obtain your improvements from. Also, urban planning has to deal with logical thinking and making sure that planning must be done carefully and effectively.

Summing things up, I think Robert Moses is the main character of this Good guy gone Bad story. He was so addicted to power that the things that he dreamt of putting him on that golden status, ironically was same ones that brought him down. His greatest achievement was probably the bridges that he made mainly because they are still being importantly used now. His biggest failure, architecture wise was the Worlds fair that put New York in much deficits. However, we can never deny the fact that Robert Moses still plays an important role in New York today because of his contributions, if he never existed then New York wouldnt be The New York of today, big skyscrapers and beautiful roads and highways. His failure when looked at critically can be seen to be helpful and influential too especially in urban planning. Finally the most important thing I have learned from his legacy was not to abuse your power or position in the government, and avoiding personal benefits for it can ruin your planning and your career as well.

The Great Gatsby

When one speaks of  The American Dream,  one would think of a feeling of opportunity, individualism and the quest for happiness.  In other words, it is the pursuit and living of the  good life.   It is about taking advantage of the opportunities American society offers to anyone as far as achieving one s goals or dreams is concerned.  The American Dream is often envisioned as having just about everything one needs to be happy a decent house in a decent neighborhood where people are friendly, being able to raise a family and provide for them without having to worry about a thing and having a good job in order to provide for one s family and one s own needs. It is a life that appears to be devoid of any kind of problem in society. This has been the goal of anyone in America, whether native-born or an immigrant.  The general theme of the novel, The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (as well as his other work, The Beautiful and the Damned) is all about the American dream.  However, Fitzgerald depicts it in a different light which shows the dark side of this fantasy world called the  American Dream.   This is underscored when in a letter to his friend Marya Mannes, Fitzgerald said,  Americas great promise is that somethings going to happen, and after a while you get tired of waiting because . . . America is the story of the moon that never rose...America is so decadent that its brilliant children are damned almost before they are born (Fitzgerald,  The Beautiful and the Damned,  iii).

When Fitzgerald wrote The Great Gatsby, he lived during the  Roaring 20 s,  a period when the United States was enjoying great prosperity since its economy was not adversely affected by the ravages of the First World War.  The 1920 s saw American society living it up to the fullest and people appeared to have a lot of money to spend for more than just the basic needs. This is underscored when Daisy said,  Ive been everywhere and seen everything and done everything Sophisticated - God, Im sophisticated  (Fitzgerald,  The Great Gatsby,  13).  However, Fitzgerald saw it in a different light, apparently drawing mainly from his personal experiences, by depicting a side of the  American Dream  no one has seen or cared to see.  Fitzgerald showed the darker side of American society and that the emerging moral decadence was undermining the  American Dream.   The first chapter appears to offer a hint when Daisy, in her conversation with Nick, was hoping her daughter would be a  beautiful little fool  which she believes would be the best thing a girl could be in the world as far as she was concerned (Fitzgerald,  The Great Gatsby,  13).  This underscored the seeming narrow-mindedness, if not superficiality of the social elites of the time and would give the reader a taste of what is to come in the subsequent chapters.

In the novel, Gatsby, the main protagonist of the story, personified the  noveau riche  or the new class of affluent people as a self-made tycoon who often likes to mingle with the other elites of society in his community.  This is observed by Nick when he said,  The truth was that Jay Gatsby, of West Egg, Long Island, sprang from his Platonic conception of himself. He was a son of God-a phrase which, if it means anything, means just that-and he must be about His Fathers business, the service of a vast, vulgar, and meretricious beauty. So he invented just the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen year old boy would be likely to invent, and to this conception he was faithful to the end  (Fitzgerald,  The Great Gatsby,  63).  Gatsby transforms himself into the ideal image that he envisioned for himself and remains fixed to that ideal, despite the obstacles that would impede in the fulfillment of his dream.  However, this image Gatsby presents hides a darker side here.  Gatsby did not acquire his wealth in the  traditional  way but through illegal activities since he had ties to organized crime which was instrumental in his rise to wealth and fame.  As a way of flaunting his newly-acquired wealth and status, he would throw lavish parties every week and these parties would attract not only his ilk (the  new money ) but also the  old money  people, some of whom would be repulsed by the apparent lack of graces of the former to demonstrate he was one of them and deserved to be among them notwithstanding his past.

On the other hand, the latter was without faults either as Fitzgerald highlighted the seemings mentality of hypocrisy among the established elite (Stratton). In addition, the  old money  people have their share of immorality which is underscored by Toms illicit affair with Wilsons wife Myrtle and finds it outrageous at the mans naivete when he said,  He thinks she goes to see her sister in New York. Hes so dumb he doesnt know hes alive  (Fitzgerald,  The Great Gatsby,  36).  Gatsby pursued wealth because of love but the means he used to acquire it were morally wrong, giving credence to the Machiavellian axiom,  the ends justify the means.   In the beginning of the movie, Gatsby is already dead and his life is recreated mainly through the eyes of Nick Carraway who serves as Fitzgerald s alter-ego in the novel.  He underscores the dark side of society by saying  That s my Middle West the street lamps and sleigh bells in the frosty dark I see now that this has been a story of the West, after all, Tom and Gatsby, Daisy and Jordan and I, were all Westerners, and perhaps we possessed some deficiency in common which made us subtly unadaptable to Eastern life (Fizgerald,  The Great Gatsby,  96).

The novel tends to depict Gatsby as a  social climber.  Gatsby came from an impoverished family but acquired wealth as time progressed .  In the case of Gatsby, he acquired his wealth by being involved in organized crime.  His pursuit for wealth was in order to win the heart of Daisy Buchanan who belonged to the  old money  people whom he fears might despise him, hence the need to reinvent himself to be acceptable to her.  Upon acquiring wealth, Gatsby would flaunt his wealth and influence to demonstrate his power.  Gatsby throws lavish parties every Saturday to attract all the affluent people in his community in a bid to demonstrate he belongs among them and serves as a step to bring him closer to Daisy, even changing his original name of Gatz to Gatsby to be accepted.  Nick would put it like this,  Gatsby believed in the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us.  It eluded us then, but that s no matter- tomorrow will run faster, stretch out our arms further and then one fine morning- (Fizgerald,  The Great Gatsby,  120).  

This underscores Gatsby s relentless pursuit of something that would just remain a dream.  Although he has achieved his goal in becoming wealthy, winning the heart of the woman he loves proved to be the most elusive dream he had which unfortunately had no chance to fulfill as he was murdered by Daisy s vengeful husband Tom who himself is involved in an affair and killed Gatsby in revenge for killing his lover though by accident.  In his heart, there can be no one else but Daisy for him and he pictured her as his ideal woman.  This is underscored when Nick, through his observation of Gatsby, said,  There must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams - not through her own fault but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He had thrown himself into it with a creative passion  (Fitzgerald,  The Great Gatsby,  42).

If there is a lesson from both The Great Gatsby,  it is a reminder that being wealthy, famous or powerful should not be used as a measurement for success.  For having these does not guarantee one will be forever happy, as it is underscored in the case of Gatsby who lived unhappily and the happiness he had put up was illusory.  This also showed the darker side of the rich and powerful and shows how material wealth and corrupt one s morals and be a slave to it.  The Great Gatsby pictures the darker side of the American Dream.  Not everybody gets to fulfill it they way they dreamed of in the beginning.  In the case of the elites of West Egg, their wealth corrupted them instead of making them better individuals in terms of attitude and values as demonstrated by Daisy in the earlier chapter.  Gatsby acquired his wealth  illegally  and for the wrong reasons.  Furthermore, Gatsby did not get to fulfill his dream of getting Daisy and would never do as he was killed later on.  This was the decadence that Fitzgerald noticed and feared would have terrible consequences for American society which he believed was not built on these values.  The decadence of these elites caused them to be more greedy and even commit acts of impropriety, a far cry from the values practiced by the rest of American society.

The Healing of America (medical insurance)

In the book, The Healing of America, T.R. Reid exposes deficiencies and imperfections of the current health care system roaming in the United States. In comparison to England, the Englands public health service specifically its National Health Service mainly provides healthcare to all permanent residents of the United Kingdom. These services such as medical insurance, therapies, and consultation fees are free of charge at the point of use and paid for from general taxation. In the United States, health care is available but not at a reasonable cost. In the authors quest to find differences in the health care systems between the United States and other developed countries including, France, Germany and Japan, he found that many developed countries provide universal coverage with private doctors, private hospitals, and private insurances.
Is health care a human right T. R. Reid poses this question to the lawmakers of the United States. He stresses the importance of health care as leveled to the importance of education in a country. He also stresses the necessity for a major health reform. In the current health care system, doctors are poorly paid, some patients are mistreated, poor services and facilities are rendered but still it operates at a lower cost, produces better health statistics and covers everybody.

Reid criticizes how the United States spend a greater percentage of its wealth on its health care system but still operates inefficient in terms of its standard measures such as life expectancy after birth (ranks 47th) and infant mortality (ranks 22nd). In the old bill, about 40 million Americans are uninsured. Reid compares two American mothers who are single parents. One is a well-compensated executive with employer-provided health insurance and the other one is a hardworking domestic who has no health insurance. When both women begin to experience symptoms of illness, the woman with health insurance goes to the doctor, and tests reveal early-stage ovarian cancer. She is treated successfully and lives to enjoy her grandchildren. The other woman, who is afraid to consult to a doctor and fearful that she cannot afford out-of-pocket costs for a series of tests, postponed going for treatment until the symptoms are unbearable. An ovarian cancer is also discovered after her consultation and she does not survive her ovarian cancer. Unlike in the other woman with health insurance, her daughter becomes an orphan. Compared with other democratic and rich countries, only in the United States such inequalities are a commonplace. In addition, although health cost acquires very expensive, medical operations could still be ineffective.

In comparison to France and Japans health care system, consumers have quicker access to a broader range of providers meaning there is no cost for going out of network. Also, no one is denied an insurance claim andor turn to medical bankruptcy. To reiterate, per capita health care costs are far lower than in the United States, and still operates similar to the United States health care system and in some cases produces better outcome. In terms of providing quick access to specialists, he named Germany, France, Sweden and Denmark outperforming the United States.

Health care systems among other countries just like in the United States do have problems and no single health care system works to provide and cover medical services to all. In the United States, providing socialized medicine is not enough to produce low cost health care although in terms of the quality of its services, health care system provides high quality of medical treatments and services among its consumers. Reid emphasized integration of universal coverage and government regulation with entrepreneurialism to produce high quality and low cost health care. This only means preserving a greater role for competing private-sector doctors and insurance companies. Furthermore, government regulation and price controls also play a big role in keeping the market value among medical practitioners in the public service sector. In Britain, most doctors are in business for themselves and most of them practice in private through phone calls andor by an appointment.

Socialized medicine is defined to provide health care insurance to people without existing illness covered in the insurance and is available for those who can afford it. In a democratic country like the United States, it is nearly impossible for the insurance companies to provide health care insurance without gaining profit or switching into a non-profit entity for public service. In these terms, covering everybody for health insurance and providing them medical services free of charge is currently not available.  

Even in the new bill, the problem of the United States health care system centers on cost, coverage and quality. Universal coverage in practicality is the first thing that should be fixed before anything else. It is an essential tool to control costs and maintains the overall quality of the nations health. To improve the overall health of the nation, universal coverage is necessary since everybody has privileged to be seen by a doctor and be able to get diagnostic and preventive treatment that will keep them healthy. In the case of the United States, most Americans get medical treatments if their illnesses are already severe and most of them were treated unsuccessfully. Although it is cheaper to treat an illness than to take preventive measures to hinder possible severe problems, the more important thing is the health of everybody (Reid, 2009).  

Save Money for a Healthy and Wealthy Life

Good habits improve our physical, emotional and financial health. Saving money is one of my good habits. It is essential for ones financial well-being and can save one a number of emotional and psychologically induced physical problems. Although the thrill of impulse spending makes saving money look less appealing, this good habit not only strengthens psychological, physical and financial health but also allows one to spend more in the long-run.
Why should you save money Saving money allows you to keep your financial budget in check. You can balance your expenditures without debt and the ever rising interest payments. It enables you to effectively counter any unexpected financial exigencies that arise. By creating an emergency fund through money saving, you can cover an unanticipated car repair or job loss without damaging your psychological health (Caldwell). Through saving, you can pay for your education or the education of your children.
Another reason why you should save money is to afford the down payment on your dream house or car (Caldwell). If you spend before you can count your dollars, then you may never be able to purchase that exquisite house, piece of jewelry, your favorite car and other luxury items or go on the vacation you also desired. A dearth of funds may even ruin important occasions such as marriage and anniversary celebrations. Money saving also allows you to prepare for your retirement. The sooner your start saving money, the greater will be the accumulated interest on saved money and higher the amount of money you can spend.
A major reason why you should inculcate the habit of saving money is to enhance the emotional security that comes with money. There are a number of financial events like inflation, recession, unemployment and tax hikes that are not in ones control. In such situations, an absence of adequate funds upsets ones mental make-up causing stress and tension. With deteriorating emotional health and increased stress, problems such as depression, obesity, high blood pressure, heart disease, abnormal heartbeats and acne become more likely (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Thus, not only do you lose your emotional health with dwindling finances, your physical health also suffers. You can avoid these problems by saving part of your income.
By saving money, you learn the value of a dollar. You can balance your finances, effectively handle unexpected financial problems, and afford major expenses on important occasions without losing your emotional stability. The habit is critical for ensuring uninterrupted happiness and smoothness in your life. So learn to save money to save yourself a lot of financial, psychological and physical distress.
Separated by almost two centuries, John Smith and Benjamin Franklin, similarly reflect views of the Native Americans as savages by European and early American society. However, the writers own perspective and beliefs on the behaviors of the Native Americans differs greatly. While Franklin draws attention to the hypocrisy of white American and Europeans views in  Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America,  John Smiths experiences outlined in his General History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles show the personification of the very ideals that Franklin attacks. Despite the hospitality and mercy shown in sparing his life and helping the settlement through the hard times, John Smith still retains feelings of superiority to the native tribes he encounters. He never attempts to view Powhatan and his people as equals, but keeps a distance from them due in large part because of their difference. The way Smith describes Powhatan as a King and Oppossunoquonuski as  Queen of the Appomattoc  (52) shows that he is viewing the society of the natives from a European perspective. The tribesmen become  grim courtiers  (51) rather than individual men or even warriors. By seeing the people from only his cultural perspective, Smith sees Powhatan and his peoples manners and behavior as odd, calling their hospitality at times  their best barbarous manner  (52). When Smith is saved by Pocahontas he doesnt see it as a indicator of human mercy because that would make them more like himself. Instead, he looks at his rescue as divine intervention,  almighty God (by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those stern barbarians with compassion  (52). Hes saying, in effect, that Powhatan and his people would not have spared his life if not for the intervention of God. Though Smith is probably a lot less harsh in his judgment of the natives as some of his peers, he views them through prejudiced eyes and its evident in his language that he doesnt see them as equals.

Benjamin Franklin, on the other hand, reveals the obvious conflict between the views that Native Americans were savage and the obvious civility of their culture and behaviors. Unlike Smith, Franklin steps out of the perspective of his racial and social status to look at both whites and the so-called savages from an equal perspective. What he shows is that the views of both arent based necessarily in truth but cultural perspective,  Savages we call them, because their manners differ from ours, which we think the perfection of civility they think the same of theirs  (226). However, as Franklin shows, the basis for white Europeans and Americans views of Native Americans was based in prejudice rather than observation. To show this Franklin uses the example of a Swedish minister being chastised by a  Susquehanah Indian chief for his intolerance in refusing to listen to their stories of creation, after theyd listed to his,  it seems your friends have not done you justice in education they have not well instructed you in the rules of common civility. You saw that we, who understand and practice those rules, believed all your stories why do you refuse to believe ours  (228). He shows that the irony is that the people who are called savages are in many ways the most civilized.

Unable to see beyond the differences between European culture and Powhatans tribe, John Smith sees them as barbarians. He can accept them as a part of the new land but does not accept them as his equal. Much later, in his objective look at Native Americans relationship to whites Benjamin Franklin uses the viewpoint of men like Smith to show the true savagery of cultural and racial prejudices that created the basis of Smiths understanding of the Native Americans.
What dates are usually given for the beginning and ending of the modern period in literature

-the modern period starter from the year 1914, same year the World War I started and ends in the year 1945, same year the World War II ended.

What is considered the central theme or idea of modernism

- Rationalism and innovation.

What caused people to focus on this central theme

- The time modernism started, industrialization is also on its move. Change in everything, being innovative and when people are thinking more rational about everything and anything.

What are the characteristics of modern literature

- Experimentation, anti-realism, individualism and intellectualism. The characteristics of modern literature is said to have a pessimistic vibe and complex sharing a theme of alienation that often leads to awareness of inner self.

What is especially modern about The Anecdote of the Jar

- The artist Wallace Stevens, is self conscious of his surroundings, he described the relationship of man and nature in ways we dont normally think of.

How does the form of the poem fit its theme and subject

-The subject and theme of the poem as describe is a product of self awareness thus making it fit the modernism.

What might the jar symbolize

-The jar in the poem of Stevens is symbolizing man.

What is the theme of The Snow Man

- The poem The Snow Man shows individualism and intellectualism.

What can we guess about the life and personality of J. Alfred Prufrock from T. S. Eliots poem

-That he uses to be the Michelangelo every girl dreams, he never settled and as he grows older, he is now in a dilemma whether any mermaid will ever sing to him again.

What is modern about The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

-The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock  is very pessimistic. The poem also exert self criticism that is not normal and what makes it very modern.

What three levels of experience does Prufrock explore (actually or in his imagination) in the poem

-Dilemma, fear and settlement.How does he feel about each of those levels

-In dilemma, Prufrock is very concerned that he is getting older, he is not what he use to be and when he reminisce about what girls use to say to him In the room the women come and goTalking of Michelangelo.

-In fear the line But though I have wept and fasted, wept and prayed, he is afraid if anyone is still going to be with him now that hes balding and old.

-In settlement, I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon the beach. He has accepted that he is getting older and he cant do anything about it.

In Prufrock, the famous image of the etherized patient begins a pattern of related images of . . . what

-A man who is in a relationship but doesnt really want a commitment.

What does the description of the yellow fog seem to compare the fog to

-His past life or rather his youth that is slowly slipping away.

What is the great question that Prufrock cant bring himself to ask-If he is going to settle with a woman
Does Prufrock change or learn in the course of his poem-He learned to settle in the fact that he is growing older and he cant do anything about it.

What modern attitude is expressed by Edna St. Vincent Millays Fig poems

-It is rational. The life describe in the First Fig is a rationalization of life, when you take risk, you might end up burning your life faster but it will be worth it, it gives a lovely life you can experience more of life that way.

Who were flappers

-The flappers are referred to as the women in the 20s whose lifestyle consist of bold and daring actions, and independent characteristics a feminist.

In what sense is I, being born a woman and distressed a flapper poem-In the poem of Edna St. Vincent Millay I, being born a woman and distressed she shows how society dictates how woman should depend man. She has described how being possessed is similar to death.

How does I, being born a woman use stereotypes of both men and women-In the poem, the women are perceived to be dictated by men and men is suppose to posses women.

What does the speaker in Oh, oh, you will be sorry for that word intend to do Why does she want to do it

-Give me back my book and take my kiss instead. The character in the poem wants his husband to give back her book the word book signifies the education, intelligence and possibly thinking free and thinking for her.

What part of her seems to be slighted or rejected by her husband

- Come, I will show you now my newest hatAnd you may watch me purse my mouth and prink

What theme or idea do Oh, oh, you will be sorry for that word and Trifles have in common

-Both are being hindered by there husband to do what they want. In Oh, oh, you will be sorry for that word, the husband doesnt want her to thing freely and in Trifles, the husband hindered her from singing.

In writing Trifles, Susan Glaspell drew on the Margaret Hossacks arrest and trial for the murder of her husband, a story Glaspell had covered as a newspaper reporter. What elements did she change in creating the play What elements did she use in the play

-How John was killed, in Margaret Hossacks arrest an axed was used to kill John, in the play Trifles, Susan used a rope to kill the husband of Minnie.

What factors enable the women in Trifles to figure out what probably happened between John and Minnie Wright

-Going through the same things as Minnie, and approaching it emotionally as suppose to attack it physically.

What clues do they find in Mrs. Wrights kitchen-The half undone things in the kitchen and the dead canary wrapped in a piece of silk in a fancy box.

The psychologist Carol Gilligan argues that women tend to make moral judgments on a different basis than men do. How do Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale base their judgments of John and Minnie Wright

-They use emotions as a basis of their judgment.

How does Sherwood Anderson depict the small town of Winesburg, Ohio

-That most of who live in Winesburg, Ohio, has their own story and side to tell.

What is modern about his depiction of the town

-Hes style of experimenting with the way he wrote the novel. He used an old character to tell the story of each character he wants you to know about. Each character although a different story is connected in a sort of gross way.

What is modern about Wing as a character

-In the character of Wing Biddlebaum, the author portrayed someone out of the norm someone who you wouldnt expect in your neighborhood but is possible.

What is George Willards role in Winesburg, Ohio

-A news reporter whos flocked by everyone in town but want more of life, he is also seen as the protagonist of the novel.

What experiences of Andersons helped him create the characters in Winesburg

-His life and how he lived it, he also lived in Ohio for sometime.

Why might marginalize writerswomen or minoritiesdiffer from other modern writer

-Every woman or minority can write but if what they write imposes innovation and rationalism, that shows experimentation and other characteristics of modern writing then that is the only time they can be called modernist.

What was the Harlem Renaissance

-The movement of the new negro, this is the time when African-American begin have recognition for their literary works.

What were the attitudes of some affluent, artistic whites towards the Harlem Renaissance

-They started to take interest of what the African-American is doing

How might those attitudes have affected the artists, writers, and performers of the Harlem Renaissance

- The whites started to gain influence and copy the artist of the Harlem Renaissance, like playing jazz.

What was Zora Neale Hurstons own position on race and racial conflict How did that position affect her literary reputation

-Yes, Ms Hurston has position her literary works which speaks in a narrative black voice when she writes and she has achieved it.

How does Hurston incorporate folklore into The Gilded Six-Bits

-She used the story and how the African-Americans lived in Harlem Renaissance.

How does she create a timeless, mythic quality

-She wrote about the cultural and racial issues encountered by African Americans.

What attitude towards money does Joe and Missy Mays Saturday ritual express

-Joe throws silver dollars at their door for Missy May to find Joe buys things for Missy May to find inside his pockets. This is a fight game they do sometimes.

What attitude towards money is embodied by Otis. D. Slemmons How does the description of Otis satirize the image of the wealthy capitalist

-Slemmons is portrayed to think that money can buy everything. The capitalist at is portrayed to be very sly, they promise to give you something they dont have, in The Gilded Six-Bit it was gold.

How does Slemmons attitude towards money affect (and infect) Joe and Missy May

-It has slightly ruin the relationship of Missy May and Joe, because Missy May did agree to have sexual relationship with Slemmon in exchange for gold.

What wasis Ernest Hemingways image What made him famous, besides his writing

-His image consists of his distinct writing style. He is also famous for being a journalist and veteran of the World War I

Who is Nick Adams What is his relationship to Hemingway

-He is the protagonist Hemmingway has used in many of his stories. It portrays an experience he had in the summer in Northern Michigan when he was in service for Red Cross.

What value did Hemingways life and work often express

-Live in the moment. Being bold, rugged individual of America

What is Hemingways version of the modern style


What kinds of words (nouns, verbs, etc.) characterize the Hemingway style

-Unconventional, short, concrete and direct prose

How does that style work in Big Two-Hearted river to put us inside of Nicks experiences -Individualism and post traumatic syndrome.

What was Hemingways Iceberg theory

-It states that if a writer knows what he or she is writing about, he can omit words and the readers will still get the writers point, but if a writer omits words because he doesnt know it, the readers will not get what he wrote and end up having a gap in his writing.

If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The dignity of movement of an ice-berg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. A writer who omits things because he does not know them only makes hollow places in his writing.

-Ernest Hemingway

If we apply that theory to Big Two Hearted River, what might be the part of the iceberg thats below the surface of the story

-He applied the iceberg theory in writing the life of Nick, he did not say what the symbolism of the black grasshopper is, the burnt forest and even the fishes, but the readers understand it because he knows what he is writing about.

What parts of the story might seem to reveal whats below the surface

-The black grasshopper from the burnt forest, this symbolizes the damage the World War I has made, the grasshopper being the people who are forever traumatized by what has happened in the war. When Nick was fishing he first caught a small fish but they let go, hes line then caught a big fish which he struggled and fight with but end up failing, he then caught two medium fish in the end. It is like Hemingway is saying to be contented with the medium fishes rather that fight and suffering to catch bigger fishes or opportunity that might leave us with nothing in the end.

If we see Nick as anxious or traumatized, what might be the source of his trauma

-He is traumatized by what he has encountered in World War I.

American Interior Spaces

The American houses in the nineteenth century were no less than splendid structures with all comforts and luxuries. The feel of culture was quite visible from the interiors of the house. The furniture, items like paintings on the wall, utensils, rooms, were all designed with great sense of fashion and grandeur. Paintings of wars, or old city structures, or Lord Jesus, were common on the walls, symbolizing the American taste in scenic beauty and their devotion towards God. The visit to the New York museum revealed the exhibition of a nineteenth century American house. The exhibit was somewhat enlightening about the interior of the American house. The exteriors may have been old faade style in nature, but the interiors were quite swanky. The formal double  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiParlor o Parlor parlors represent New Yorks finest example of  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiGreek_Revival_Style_architecture o Greek Revival Style architecture Greek revival architecture. The interior also contains the Treadwell familys original furnishings, including pieces from prominent New York cabinetmakers, like  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiDuncan_Phyfe o Duncan Phyfe Duncan Phyfe and  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiJoseph_Meeks o Joseph Meeks Joseph Meeks.

The exhibition truly reflected the taste of Americans in that era. One of the rooms had a really comfortable wooden chair with shiny leather make. In the centre was a very costly center table with a scenic painting emphasizing the taste of the Americans in scenic beauty. The walls were painted with dark colors. On the other end was a wall with a very decorative shining mirror. It resembled ancient war equipment used to protect against the enemys attack. Below the mirror was a smart table with various things. The rectangular shaped table had two large sized lamps and great feel of ethnicity. They also presented a real glossy feel of the semi lit room. There was also a table clock with pendulum. It looked a complete table with a framed painting, which seemed to be of the owner of the house or his loved one.

On the other wall was a painting of a lady, probably a mother holding her child. It portrayed the sensitive feelings of the owner of the house. Near one of the chairs was a tall pillar like structure, added to enhance the beauty of the smart room. The room was no less than a palace, with furniture and curtains adoring their own beauty in the dim yellow light of the oil lamp. The floor was lush and had a good looking floor cloth. There was a short table which was probably the chess table. It showed that the average American had a good little interest in playing mind game like chess.

The centre table as mentioned earlier had a very nice painting. On closer look it was that of a horse rider, splashing at a very fast speed, racing towards his journey. It showed that the Americans had a great feel and liking for horse riding and had great mastery in that art. The rider was riding at a very fast speed showing that the rider had full control over his horse and was really in a hurry or was angry over something which caused him to hurry up. The surrounding parts of the table had Dee brown red polished work done. All the furniture in the room, as exhibited was very sober, classical and sharp in views. It showed that the American was rich and    believed in living a luxurious, comfortable and enjoyable life. It most probably resembled a modern day lounge or a rich mans drawing room.

The floor cover was hand woven with flowers designed. It gave a great feel to the room. The room had large windows with the view of the outside clearly visible. The window was made of wooden frames with glass panes in between. The curtains in the room were quite special and selected to choose the taste and personality of the room. In the other side of the room was a sofa set which could be used to seat four people together. It was probably put for parties and other occasions, where gatherings of family and friends would take place. This shows that the American believed in celebrating life with friends.

The  room  had  everything  as  expected  to  be  in  an  American  room.  But  it  missed  a  cigar,  something  that  any  American  is  incomplete  without.  The  room  was  too  silent,  and  did  not  have  any  people  in  it , and  that  was  made  to  look  somewhat  sad  or  somber.  Apart  from  chess ,  there  was  no  other  thing  that  was  displayed  as  a  time  pass  or  source  of  entertainment  for  the  residents  of  the  house.  A bonfire cage was missing from the room.  The  room  did  not  have  a  single  book  ,  magazine  or  newspaper.  This was strange.  Wither  the  exhibition  organizers  missed  this  point  ,  or  they  wanted  to  show  that  the  common  American  was  not  much  of  a  literate,  which  may  be  a  debatable  issue.  But from  the  exhibition  we  may  sat  that  the  Mercian  in  that  era  was  not  much  interested  in  reading  or  keeping  books.

The  exhibit  has  a  certain  goal,  of  showing  the  room  of  an  average  American  house.  It succeeds in portraying it.  We  learn  from  this  exhibition  that  Americans  had  a  great  and  simple  luxurious  life,  loved  playing  chess,  were  connoisseurs  of  beauty  and  art.  They  loved  their  homes  and  made  them  look  as  happy  as  their  lives.  The rooms were made handsome with good quality furniture.  The American was punctual and responsible.  This  could  be  drawn  from  the  presence  of  a  table  clock  on  the  side  table.  Life was beautiful, and the Americans loved their horse riding.  It was a passion for them.  The  American  loved  to  preserve  memories  as  suggested  by  the  framed  photo  of  one  of  the  family  members.

We  also  learn  that  painters  had  a  great  time  and  role  to  play  in  American  society.  By the 1850s, on the eve of the Civil War, painters of American stories expanded their interests beyond the individual and the family to focus on broader issues, especially territorial expansion and politics. The stage-set compositions of the previous decade, derived from European prototypes, gave way to outdoor scenes that capture, literally, a wider view of American life. As population and wealth increased, there emerged an energetic, diversified art market that encompassed auction houses, lotteries, and fly-by-night dealers who set up shop in the cities. Artistic competition escalated exponentially, and the profession opened to include women painters such as Lilly Martin Spencer, who cast a critical eye on domestic life from an insiders perspective.

Responding to pressure to invent novel subjects that would distinguish their works at exhibition and attract purchasers, many American artists took on complex and often difficult topics, including the relationships between blacks and whites, men and women, and immigrants and native workers, but always enlisted euphemism or understatement to tell their stories. A few painters explored themes from the rugged wilderness, which appealed to urban viewers seeking vicarious frontier or backwoods adventures.

The Death of a Salesman Willy Loman

The play entitled Death of a Salesman was authored by Arthur Miller showcasing Willy Loman as a compassionate salesman who matched the views provided by Aristotle of a dreadful hero. Willys up and down life is similar to the view of Aristotle about the weaknesses of a hero. In particular, his failure in life is characterized with his continued financial struggles, flawed personality and his incapacity. He is an old salesman who sells nothing, exploited by his buyers and consistently borrows money from someone named Charley in meeting his ends. His boss named Howard terminated him after thirty four years of working. As a result, he is struggling for his life, searching for ways for sustaining himself. The problem of Willy Loman lies on his complete acceptance of the values created by the society which means adjusting himself to the social standards rather than on human needs. This deficiency in terms of insight is remarkably identical to the characteristics of a tragic hero. Meanwhile, his failed personality is evident in his abandonment of his family members namely Linda, his wife and his two sons, Happy and Biff. The cruelty of Willy over his son Happy was evident on this line Youll retire me for life on seventy goddam dollars a week (Miller, p. 41). Willys cruelty is also showcased with his wife as he always shouted Linda especially in times of conversations with two sons. As a result, his wrongdoings outweighed the good things he has done for his family. His struggles continued especially when he was terminated from his job as a salesman due to his consistent requests to be assigned anywhere and yet he couldnt generate any sale for the firm. As a result, he loses control of his life as he attempted to kill himself just to provide anything for his family. In the end, he is considered as the tragic hero identical to the description of Aristotle (Miller, p. 41). Willy Loman showed the nature and characteristic of an average man which is being strong by showing his will power over the people he governs. In addition, he is a model of a good father despite of the fact that he struggles on his own as he tries to fill the needs of his family.

The Working Girls of New York and Rebecca Harding Davies Life in the Iron Mills

Fanny Ferns the Working Girls of New York reveals the terrible condition of women workers during her era to which she described this condition as extremely terrible that no one would spend even five minutes in that room where these women were working. According to the author, You could not stay five minutes in that room where the noise of the machinery used is so deafening and the room they occupy is close and unventilated, with no accommodations for personal cleanliness (Fern 220). With very clear and perhaps with first hand knowledge of the condition of the working girls, Fern provided a concrete image of the working condition faced by American working women not only in New City, but through America during this period. But was Ferns depiction of the past working condition appropriate In order to answer this question, this paper will compare and contrast the two articles, one being Ferns Working-girls of New York and the other is Rebecca Harding Davies Life in the Iron Mills. In this work, Rebecca Harding Davies depicted the lives of people in the claws of poverty. This paper therefore will attempt to compare and contrast these two authors especially on their views on the existing realities and how they expressed these views in their respective works. At the onset, these writers depicted differing perspective on the existing realities of life during this period, but both portrayed the struggles that these people were treading.

Similarities between these writers
One of the similarities between these authors have been in the context by which they dramatized the hard realities those people in abject poverty was confronting. Both author depicted the oppressive atmosphere by which women were subjected and were utterly dominated by the circumstances reduced their rights as a person to the level of the inhuman condition. Both author also portrayed the tolerance of the society regarding the exploitation on the working women by the capitalist through their utter disregard of the womens health condition as most of these working girls worked in an atmosphere where ventilation is poor, sanitations were virtually non existent, were working longer hours, and most importantly they were portrayed as classless people. Though Davies seemed to differ with Ferns in her portrayal of the realities which women faced, but ultimately, like Ferns, she vividly portrayed that women were victims of the existing conditions which were terribly oppressive to women during their time. Davies stated, If you could go into this mill where Deborah lay, and drag out from the hearts of these men the terrible tragedy of their lives, taking it as a symptom of the disease of their class, no ghost horror would terrify you more. A reality of soul-starvation, of living death, that meets you everyday under the besotted faces on the street(Davies, 19). Davies depicted the women condition in the character of Deborah in the same way Ferns depicted the women condition in the character of Lezzy and the twenty five working women.

Another similarity between these two authors was in their depiction of the character of the women in their respective works. Ferns described the character of the working women as determined, hardworking, and focused. They were undistracted by the extremely poor working condition, by the noise of the machineries, and by the utter lack of personal necessities. Ferns herself was amazed by such determination as she expressed it as follows, Why these young creatures bear it, from seven in the morning till seven in the evening week after week, month after month, with only half an hour at mid day to eat their dinner of a slice of bread and butter or an apple which they usually eat in the building, some of them come a long a distance (Ferns, 221). This description of the working womens character was much by Davies description of the character of Deborah wherein, even in the midst of a heavy rain would go to bring food to a starving relative. Though the context differs, yet the women character being described depicts strength, determination, and focus.

Finally, both author described the grinding poverty which was greatly affecting women more than men. That is, the lack of recognition of womens rights relegated women to a very low status. They were inferior with men, stricken with poverty, and uneducated. For her part, Ferns depicted that the only hope of women to escape from her predicament was, if she could marry a stable man, unfortunately, this also proved unreliable as couple often end up in a quick separation. While Davies seemed to have not offered any solution to the grinding poverty which women suffer, she also clearly depicted the impact of poverty on women more than on men. Quite contrary with how Ferns sees the general condition between men and women living in an atmosphere of poverty, Davies sees that men like women also suffers poverty in the same degree with women. Davies stated Nature had promised the man but little. He had already lost the strength and instinct vigor of a man, his face, (a meek, womans face) haggard, yellow with consumption (22). But generally, both see the impact of poverty on women more than on men.  

Their differences
There were quite a number of differences how these two authors come up with own views regarding the existing condition during their respective period. Among these differences is the context by which they based their writings. In the case of Ferns, she was particularly concern on the literal condition of the working women during her era. Judith Harper pointed out that, The rapid industrialization of the war years created economic conditions and labor practices that decreased womens earning power (236). Harper stressed that during this period, women earned less than fifty percent of the wages men received for the same work. Harper stressed, Falling wages and harsh practices pushed women to collaborate to demand higher wages and better working conditions (236).

The condition therefore which Ferns depicted was a real scenario wherein both the society and the government tolerated the harsh and unfair practices which factories and companies applied to their women employees. Davies on the other hand, though was also depicting the harsh realties which women faces during this time, she was not actually talking of an actual scenario. Hers was more on figurative description of the realities.

Another difference was that Fern was particularly talking about the condition of the working women while Davies was simply depicting the general scenario in which she seemed to imply that of the impact of the grinding poverty among poor people, women were more affected and suffers more, whereas, Ferns exclusively talked about the condition of working girls only in New York. Thus, the context by which Ferns was talking was the condition of women in the work place and not in the general sense. In this case, Fern was more specific and very particular in her discussion. Her ideas were clear and straightforward in the sense that she has a concrete knowledge of the situation she was depicting. Davies for her part seemed to have had some degree of difficulties in depicting the condition which has portrayed. In some sense, her ideas was not so straightforward or clear enough although one can have an impression that she was actually talking of the general impact of poverty among the poor people.

Finally, these authors differ in the way they convey their message. Apparently, Ferns was more concern on the nature of the problem these working young women faced. That is, the message being conveyed seemed to be that the problem can be solved easily yet it was tolerated and accepted as the norm of the industrialization. In this sense, it appears that though Ferns noted the conditions of women during this period, she seemed to also accept the existing mind set that the working condition of women in New York was indeed, because even there were laws and labor regulations regarding the work place condition, these were not followed but the practice of the factories of strict labor policies of longer working hours, poorly ventilated building, lower salaries, fines for lower production, etc, were the norms of Industrialization. Davies on the other hand seemed to convey a message that poverty is endemic and its effect was devastating on both men and women and that many are living in abject poverty. Hence, the context by which these two authors demonstrated their ideas was in a sense, opposite, one discussing the general condition of people in poverty during this period and the other discussing the particular context of working girls.

While there are similarities and differences between these two writers, they obviously presented important discussions through which the present generations can have a glimpse of what was the condition of the American people during the middle of the early and nineteenth century. These conditions indeed, can help every American to realize the struggles of the early forefathers in order to give the present generations the comforts they now enjoy. Through this, they might learn to value hard work, the prosperity, and the freedom which every Americans enjoys. Furthermore, the discussion opens ones mind to the fact that the great industrializations which America has achieved during this period was achieved through hard work, through perseverance, through discipline, and importantly, through sheered values of determination to achieved the goals.

In view of this, these writers not only provided the present generation with a picture of the past, but also of the vision for the future. That through their hard work and determination, they can also achieved what has been achieved by their forefathers.
You get what you deserve choices in the context of poetry

A Compare and Contrast Essay on the poems Goblin Market by Christina Georgina Rossetti and Porphyrias Lover by Robert Browning

Relationships exist in very different levels. People engage in different kinds of relationship in their daily lives. These relationships are all entanglements that we sometimes get stuck with. Such relationships include the relationships between friends, between siblings, parent and children, the individual and the society and many others. The context of these entanglements in the poem of Robert Browning in Porphyrias Lover, as with the poem Goblin Market, share a commonality in as much as these entanglements are also those that we sometimes seek far more than other less unorthodox or more socially accepted relationships. The choices that we make with how and who we choose to entangle ourselves with or have relationships with are our own choices, and as such, we can be said to get what we deserve, by choosing these relationships

The relationship that exists between the persona in Robert Brownings poem Porphyrisa lover can be viewed as unorthodox. From the start, we are seen how the woman came to the mans house even in such strange circumstances of a strong wind that toppled the tops of the trees and agitated the lakes. She came and braved the weather in order to have a tryst with the persona in the poem. It should also be noticed that such a behavior is frowned upon even in modern society. It is improper for a woman to be the one to go to a mans house. Such impropriety of behavior is also seen in the poem Goblin Market by Christina Georgina Rosetti. The sisterts Lizzie and Laura are among the goblin men and this is something very unusual for them to be doing. That is exactly why, at first they tried to shy away and did what they can to avoid the goblin men and ignore the very tempting wares they have to offer. In fact, at first, they tried to hide their faces and blocked their ears so they would not hear the goblins bargains for them to buy fruits and other trinkets from them.

This repression and suppression of the characters are also seen reflected in Brownings poem. There is this certain heaviness in the womans heart that she needed to unburden, thus necessitating a dangerous and perhaps scandalous travel towards the house of the personaPorphyria braving the rain and the wind. This suppressed feeling of love she has kept within her, only found release when shoe could no longer bear the heavy weight of it upon her chest. This feeling of love towards Porphyria, was suggested by the poem, as something seemingly very illicit and not approved by society. The same feeling of suppression and repression is also present in Rozsettis work in the Goblin Market. At first, Laura tried to conceal and control her emotions and heed her sisters warnings not buy anything from these goblin men. Later on, though, she was not able to resist such temptations, and thus gave in.

Both poems directly tell us that it is our own choice whom we want to entangle with and have relationships with, and even the most well meaning advice, admonitions and warnings. Still, Laura was not able to resist the goblin man, and then bought some fruits from them.

The liberating experience of being able to let go and let our own true emotions show, to finally release the pressure from such suppressed and repressed emotions could actually be a joy in itself. In Brownings poem, both the maiden and Porphyria sought and found release with their own burdens and suppressed and repressed emotions. However though, most often than not, this exercise of free choice will lead to feeling good and ecstatic, same as when Poryphirias lover was able to release her pent up emotions tin telling him how much she loves. The immediate tastes of these entanglements are usually sweet and are a very very fresh experience. When she was able to tell Porphyria, she was, for a sweet moment able to feel satiated or even elated to have been able to let go of a burden in her heart that she has keep. Similarly, in goblin Market, this exercise of free choice was done by Laura, when she can no longer bear the very temptations of the goblin men, and had to let go, by buying a few fruits from them. Here she is rewarded with the most luscious fruits that she has ever even tasted something like this before. The extraordinariness of the fruits flavor is celebratory of her release from the stifling, though well meaning warnings of Lizzie.

These only go to show that not only should we be careful with out choices, but also be mindful of the very people, whether they be strangers or family pf some sort. Who would think that behind the docile and sweet smiles of Porphiyria there lays a cold hearted murderer. Who would have thought even that in Goblin Market, those luscious and succulent fruits cause one to pine and waste away after partaking of these delectable selections

Finally, it is a sad conclusion that most of the times, these choices that we make with regards to people we choose to have relationships or entanglements with are actually those that do us in. The very things we often struggle for against other people, society or the world-at-large, to be able to keep for ourselves are actually those that would eventually be our own undoing. Oftentimes, too late do we realize of this sad fact that we are already in too deep or attached deeply or entangled tightly to these relationships.

In the case of Porphyrias Lover, was it not the womans choosing to be with Porphyria, in defiance of decency and even her own objections and vanities, would led to her tragic death The very person whom she wanted for her own was actually what would eventually kill her and cause her life. The same goes with Goblin Market, as when Laura realizes too late that the very desires for the fruits from the goblin men would be the cause of her pining away. This would have even brought her to her demise had she not been saved by the loyal sacrifice of her ever patient and ever loving sister Lizzie.

One final note though is the kind of relationship exhibited in both poems. This is how they differ from one another. In Brownings poem, though it might just be a suggestion that the relationship was illicit and not really substantiated the relationship between the two characters were at most sexual and carnal in nature. Whereas, in Goblin Market,the relationship that binds the two characters together was borne out of a more familial love. The love of Lizzie for her sister was actually what saw them through the whole ordeal, and in the end, became instrumental to the restoration and saving from the jaws of death of her sister Laura.