He will sleep forever if you try to set him free.

The need to feel free is inherent in every person. As Fra Lippo Lippis song implies, people will sleep and avoid trouble if they are free they will not work or do anything to bother themselves. This idea of evading pain or suffering is reflected in escapist literature, particularly in Nathaniel Hawthornes (n.d.) Wakefield and Washington Irvings (2001) Rip Van Winkle. With escapist themes in their stories, both authors exude the troubles borne by people in the 19th century and their various attempts to escape reality.
When faced with too many problems, people are tempted to escape their present situation in order to find comfort. There are different ways of evading reality. Some use their pens to write about their feelings and dreams, others who become delusory commit suicide or become insane. Still, others go on a journey and just run away from their responsibilities, without word or reason. When a person decides to break free from the present, there is always a valid reason. However, in Wakefield, Hawthorne expounds on the idea of escaping ones current situation without much reason at all.
The story opens with Hawthornes overview of the situation of the protagonist, and an invitation to reflect on the characters experience. Hawthorne posts the question, What sort of man was Wakefield  to imply the mystery in the protagonists behavior and experience. Like every man who is endowed with troubles, readers may speculate that the protagonist runs away from home due to common reasons such as finding another love, working to earn for a living, or even escaping domestic problems but as Hawthorne points out, these speculations are unfounded. This leads to the question, Why does he leave his home How does the characters experience relate to Hawthornes time

Written in the 19th century, the experience of the character projects the troubles that people faced during the time the story was written. History reveals to us the industrialization and capitalism that arouse during the 19th century, which affected people in the way they deal with others and themselves. In Wakefield, Hawthorne emphasizes feelings of alienation and isolation. In the story, the major character, Wakefield, leaves his wife without a word for 20 years. Such action demonstrates the characters isolation of himself. Also, as the narrator reveals, Wakefield himself, be it considered, has no suspicion of what is before him. This shows the inability of the man to understand his motives, and to reflect upon his purpose in life, thus implying alienation. There is no mention of severe labor situation on the part of Wakefield that could make him develop feelings of isolation and alienation. However, as the narrator reveals, it could be the absence of challenges, his inactivity that makes Wakefield feel the way he does.

According to the narrator, Wakefield is just an ordinary man. He was intellectual but not actively so his mind occupied itself in long and lazy musings, that tended to no purpose, or had not vigor to attain it. From this ordinariness, readers can imagine the character sitting at home, doing nothing so important all day for countless hours of his life. This boredom or lack of purpose is what moves Wakefield to decide to leave his wife. By securing dwelling in the next street, he finds challenge, something uncommon to the ordinary life he lives. His attempts to take a peak at his wife distract his sluggish routine. At that instant, his fate was turning on the pivot. As his heart pounds for fear of being caught, Wakefield finds his new life with adventure. Later on, his disguises serve as other challenges that make him cling to his newfound life but such challenges, as they become customary for twenty years, also lead him to return to his wife.

The feeling of boredom or sluggishness is likewise seen in Irvings Rip Van Winkle. However, Rip does not resist this sluggishness. If left to himself, he would have whistled life away in perfect contentment. Living in a farm, he shares Wakefields simple life, but not too simple and plain as the others. He is a favorite character in his place. The children of the villagewould shout with joy whenever he approached. He assisted at their sports, made their playthings, taught them to fly kites and shoot marbles, and told them long stories of ghosts, witches, and Indians. Everyone loves him and enjoys his company, except his wife who nags at him often. It is this fate that leads Rip to dislike his fate. In a word Rip was ready to attend to anybodys business but his own but as to doing family duty, and keeping his farm in order, he found it impossible. This lack of responsibility makes it better for him to sleep in the mountains, for without him, life will continue the way it should. True enough, when he finally wakes up, his kids have grown up, and the American Revolution has taken place.

Rips disappearance can be viewed in different ways. On the one hand, it is beneficial for him because that way, he avoids the nagging of his wife. On the other, he misses a lot about life, especially his childrens growing up. Also, his disappearance does not bear any effect on the world, for he is nothing especial. This notion of being too ordinary as to not to have any effect on others is likewise seen in Wakefield. Both stories show that life for the wives continue despite the loss of their husbands. Of course readers can suspect the wives longing to find them, but the emphasis of the stories is not on the emotions of the wives. Rather, the authors would like to imply the sluggishness of life in the 19th century, the lack of challenge that could raise up a mans spirit, and the unimportant role played by the common peoplethose who do not have power or position in society. These people, as seen in Rip Van Winkle take the world easy, eat white bread or brown, whichever can be got with least thought or trouble, and would rather starve on a penny than work for a pound. Having nothing to give society, they are better asleep than awake, and isolated from their wives who can carry on and play dual roles of being a father and mother to their children.

The idea of the wife being able to carry on without the husband is really striking, considering that the authors are male. Ironically, as they focus on the mans life, they imply to us the ability of the women to live without support from their husbands. Hence, the stories suggest not only the irresponsible behavior of the men, but likewise the ability of the female gender for survival. Gone to the wars, the fields, or nowhere, the husband leaves behind their responsibilities to his family while the woman assumes these and successfully lives on. Such scenario implies the authors hint on the importance of women in the 19th century society. While both authors dwell on the inefficiency of the men in fulfilling their roles, they make their readers sympathize with the women. This foreshadows the rise of women in power in politics and literature, such as Queen Victoria, and in literature, with authors Jane Austen, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, among others.

The plain and simple life that Hawthorne and Irving expound in their stories can still be felt in our times, and like the characters in the stories, some people still have escapist attitudes when dealing with their situation. Some escape reality by isolating themselves, and running away from their responsibilities just like Wakefield does. Also, like Rip Van Winkle, some try to elope by resorting to imagination and not facing their problems squarely. However, unlike Rip who does nothing but dwell in the mountains and sleep, many people attempt to forget their troubles by smoking pots or taking drugs. Realizing the way people tend to digress from their realities, modern readers should see the important message that Hawthorne and Irving imply, that in order to effect change people must always bear courage to face their situations, and do something to improve their lives.
Literature in the 19th Century The Era of Realism, Naturalism, and Impressionism
The 19th century marked a series of historical events the American civil war, the abolishment of slavery and the expanding base of middle class in the US as a result of rapid industrialization. These historical events had a profound impact on the masses who found themselves going through a sea of change and without any medium to air their feelings. The American literature at this time adjusted itself to strike a connection with the vibes of uncertainty and despair that emanated from the masses-the beleaguered middle-class. In what were later characterized as literary movements, Realism, Naturalism and Impressionism were the pioneering tools used by writers to express themselves. There has been considerable debate about the similarities and differences between these forms of literature. Some scholars have characterized them as offshoots of each other. While at first glance these three schools of thought might seem similar, at closer introspection, their subtle differences surface. Three figures that have played an instrumental role in highlighting these forms of literature are Stephen Crane, Anne Sexton and Anne Bradstreet.

Stephen Crane and Anne Sexton had a common theme their works revolved around death and despair. However, their means of portrayal were different. In one of his most influential works The Red Badge of Courage, Crane talked about the harsh realities of war, and the insecurities of common soldiers who are often pushed into senseless misadventures under the guise of heroism. This piece of literature told the untold tale of soldiers who are sent and buried as heroes whereas in reality they have fears of their own. Anne Sexton however expresses fear, death and despair by confessing her troubled childhood in her works. The Red Badge of Courage was a realistic work as it did away with unrealistic romantic notions of heroism and highlighted the forced heroism and personal insecurity. Romantics would focus on the courage of the soldier and the heroic sacrifices he makes without taking into account the terrible ordeal of the soldier. The Red Badge of Courage is based on a battle during the Civil War and was published at a time when the Civil War had ended and there were attempts to quash the horrific tales of the war. The Civil War was being portrayed as conflict between two well meaning schools of thought and thereby its racist element was being ignored. Crane attempted to highlight some of the more uncomfortable aspects of war that are usually hushed up because of their controversial nature.

Much like the confusion plagued soldier in The Red Badge of Courage, the main character in Anne Sextons famous work The Farmers Wife follows a similar theme in that it shows deep-held feelings of revolt, but on the surface there was pure submissiveness.  The woman has desires of her own, but rather than airing her views, she just gives in to the demands of her husband. By highlighting this discrepancy in what is desired and what is actually done, this work shows the profound impact of surroundings on a human being. Thus The Farmers Wife is a naturalist work. The subtle difference between realism and naturalism is that while realism resonates the actual situation of human beings and their helplessness, naturalism focuses on how an individuals environment shapes hisher desires and behavior.

The Open Boat by Crane conveys the helplessness of humans and the superiority of nature. The story is about men stranded at sea and how the sea, which is a symbol of nature, is oblivious to their plight. So while man might think that because of mankinds progress in leaps and bounds, it might have gained more control over its fate, it is essentially a self-satisfying analogy because nothing can challenge natures superiority. Owing to its emphasis on natures superiority, the Open Boat can be characterized as a naturalist work. The sea symbolizes the limitless extent of nature and its waves symbolize the fact that nature determines our course and we are at its mercy.  A similar theme of helplessness and isolation is the undertone of Sextons The Addict. This work is an admission that we can only give ourselves an illusion of control, whereas actual control is beyond us. Sextons And one for my Dame and Cranes Maggie Girl of the Streets are also about unhappiness and helplessness. While Sextons character is vying for her fathers attention albeit without success, Cranes character is unhappy because of the poverty in which she is trying to survive. Cranes work is conveying the plight of those left without the fruits of industrialization. It tells the tale of people who often go unnoticed behind the barrage of factories that characterized industrialized US. These people lived in abject poverty, with not an iota of hope while the industrial complex boasted its ever increasing prosperity. Sextons And one for my Dame interprets the feelings and impressions of the character to convey her unhappiness. This makes it a work of impressionism the writer has used the main characters impressions about her father and sibling to convey her unhappiness. Cranes An Experiment in Misery was a similar work that reflected upon the unhappy life of the downtrodden.

Some literary pieces took this feeling of helplessness to a higher level by bringing in religion. Anne Bradsreet was a poet of the 17th century, however her work found much relevance in the 19th century US. As the American society was undergoing a lot of change, there were varied views about religion. There were some who had started questioning the role of religion, whereas there were others who wanted to safeguard religions most basic tenets. Anne Bradstreets Contemplations, In Contemplations, Bradstreet actually contemplates about God and His creations with the conclusion that when mortals would cease to be, He would still be present because of His everlasting nature.

Through this poem she exclaims that she does not feel grief because it was Gods will and was thus inevitable. This inevitability of God was a beacon of hope for the down trodden in the US of the 19th century. While those living in poverty were unhappy at the unfairness of life, Anne Bradstreets work conveyed to them the superiority of God and told them that everything stemmed from Him. Thus they should not be unhappy at their worldly losses because it was Gods will. This religious theme is also evident in Cranes The Open Boat.  This work was an illustration of a personal story in which Crane had a near death experience. Crane describes how the forces of man struggle against the forces of nature, only to realize eventually that fate has to be accepted and that He who controls nature is actually in control of everything.

Thus it can be concluded that Realism, Naturalism and Impressionism were very powerful forms of literature, which were aptly applied by writers such as Stephen Crane, Anne Sexton and Anne Bradstreet. The turbulent transition that many Americans experienced during the 19th century was captured by the torchbearers of Realism, Naturalism and Impressionism. Stephen Crane gave voice to the voiceless, while Anne Bradstreet gave hope to the hopeless. Anne Sexton highlighted the unhappiness all around by means of her courageous confessions. The overarching similarity amongst these writers was their target audience all of their works were generally for the masses.  What was a period of utter discontent amongst a lot of people, these writers served to explain and somewhat lessen the discontentment. Literature is indebted to their services.
Time is past, present and future which may be illustrated as a continuum.  Being a continuum, one may shuttle backward, forward, or even stay at a particular point in time.  Ones thoughts enable an individual to do this, either at will or perhaps dictated by a need.  When an individual goes back in time, the individual actually retrieves his memory or memories.

Shuttling backward, forward or even staying at a particular point in time, through our thoughts, may be liberating.  It may be liberating because thoughts can be a powerful tool.   Through thoughts, material or tangible and intangible things can be created.  To do this, thoughts have to be expressed.  A medium is necessary so that the thoughts can be recreated when it is expressed.  Movement is necessary so that a thought is expressed through a medium and is recreated or changed from one form to another.  Thought is transformed from something inactive to something that has a potential to become something else.

Art is a form of expression.  It is expression of a thought or thoughts captured from a particular time which is the past.  What is in the past may be good or bad depending on the individuals experience, perception, culture, as well as physical, emotional and other background.  If the individual is able to learn lessons from the past, and is able to make changes to improve the original condition in the present and is rewarded in some form in the future, then this implies that the past has become liberating.

There are as many thoughts as there are many forms of art to express these thoughts.  An artist may not be limited in choosing which art form to use or even make a combination of these forms.  The art form produced may also be either tangible or not, depending on the artists thoughts or some other factors. 

For artists or individuals benefiting from any art form or product that is tangible, they would consider the condition of being tangible as being real.  Meaning, this art form product is real because it can be sensed.  When an individual accepts this, it implies that the individual is limited by what is sensed.  Meaning, all other things that cannot be sensed- by touch, taste, smell, hearing, seeing  becomes not real. 

The question is, can something that is not tangible and therefore not be sensed, be not real  Because when an individual thinks, whether of the past, the present, or the future, an individual actually recreates transforms something in the mind which is not tangible but becomes potentially tangible or transforms into another tangible thing like concepts and ideas.
By holding onto what is real, or what can be sensed, the individual limits itself to that particular tangible thing which was created in a particular time and space.  By limiting oneself to these real things, one acts like a baby kangaroo still in its mothers pouch.  And this is similar to saying that one is only thinking inside the box.

Compare this with thoughts of being outside of the pouch or thinking outside of the box, and you find an individual which learns not only what is inside the box, but also of what is outside, underneath, and on top of the box.  And even what could possibly be when one is far away from the box or even see what could possibly be if there was no box at all. When ones thoughts are also outside of the box, one senses a potential.  And because there can be many thoughts, then one can sense many potentials. 
Especially for the elderly or even sickly, thoughts of death may be considered as a possibility.  This is no different from saying that when the elderly and sickly thinks of dying, this individual has actually limited himself herself to that particular reality.  Meaning, they close themselves to the possibilities of a potential life after being at a particular age or life after improving ones health.  What is unfortunate about this is that even science confirms that our body reacts to the way we think.  Have thoughts of death and one dies even more rapidly.  Have thoughts of possibilities and one creates those possibilities into something else other than dying.

The real problem is not really death but how to live time.  Art forms remind us of people, events, ideas and things in the past.  And there are many that could be depicted from the past through different art works.  And the wonderful thing about art is that it does not end in just showing, sometimes in tangible and sometimes in abstract form, the past.  It recreates itself by telling about something in the past and moving or transforming into the future.  Its depiction of the past becomes meaningful to the person who benefits from the art form.  And by transforming into something else, especially into something useful, the art form becomes more meaningful.

The beauty of recreating something through different art forms is that many benefit.  The effects are multiplied and even become cyclical.  Meaning many benefits, for example emotionally, socially and culturally and those who benefit have the potential of recreating other art forms products which in turn give benefit to more people.  The thoughts which become art forms and products and which are used in various ways benefit become liberated.

To become liberated, debilitated or even be destroyed is a choice.  To think of the past, the present or the future is also a choice.  To create is an art form or to benefit from an art form or product is another choice.  Unfortunately, to withhold an art form or product from public consumption is also sometimes considered a choice. To recreate from these art form product is another choice.

The choices are sometimes easy to make.  For others it may be difficult.  But thoughts may help so that the choices eventually become useful and meaningful.  The important thing is to shuttle backward, forward or even stay at some point in time so that reflections thoughts may be made and choices become liberating actions.

Textiles and Textile Production Answers to Questions.

Sustainability and eco-friendly trends are most evidently associated with industries related to products such as metals and chemicals. Of course, such industries are of vital importance and may be considered as core components of technological stability and progress. However, it is for a fact that movements geared towards sustainability have been present within the textile industry as well in relation to the numerous environmental concerns associated with the industry. Specifically, issues such as noise levels, air pollution, biological pollution, chemical pollution have been associated with the textile industry as well, as mentioned throughout past discussions and reports. Hence, from the presence and identification of such issues, it becomes evident the textile industry is still among the industries that bear a considerable impact to society, similar to more often mentioned examples such as metal and chemical industries.

Importance of Textile 
The social importance of textiles, from a contemporary perspective, may be considered as most evident in relation to the topic of sustainability. Of course, even though sustainability is currently a global theme, with an emphasis upon the changes that should be done throughout different industries, it is also apparent that not all industries are given the same degree of attention regarding the urgency of actualizing such changes. Considering that studies focused upon identifying the means to attain environmental efficiency for further supporting sustainability are present, it becomes apparent that the textile industry is of considerable social importance given such attention from the scientific community. Just taking into consideration the scope of the industry, and the diversity of the textile applications, it is without doubt an industry of social significance that requires continuous changes depending upon the current concern of society. 

Textiles from Different Cultures 
In terms of similarities, it is for a fact that the raw materials used from both countries, India and Indonesia, in order to produce textile are rather similar. In particular, cotton, silk, and wool are the main materials for textile production in both countries. Such a fact would most likely be due to the proximity of India and Indonesia albeit being geographically distinct. Another similarity would be in terms the general techniques used throughout textile production. The most probable explanation for such would be both proximity and a long history of trade between the two countries. In relation to the previous point made, it is proper to emphasize the fact that batik is used in both Indonesia and India for textile production. In addition to such, it is also true that both countries currently produce textile with export opportunities in mind. Also, in both Indonesia and India, given that silk is among the main raw materials used, silk worm cultivation is most probably of vital significance as well.
In terms of differences, aspects such as textile variants and specific differences in art characteristics and patterns may be seen upon close scrutiny. Of course, attention to detail is required to realize such distinctions since from a general standpoint, textiles produced from Indonesia and India is generally similar. An example of such, would be in terms of the fact that despite the presence of deities as a theme in textile production for both countries, the use of ink as a means of providing such imagery is more directly associated with India. To further expound and to highlight another point of difference, despite similarities in techniques employed in textile production, the Kalamkari process of production is still distinctly Indian as Indonesia considers products from such a process as items for import. In addition to such, textile production which is in part an art form would differ in terms of specific cultural differences from the two countries as well. Of course, even though such countries are relatively of close geographical proximity, it is proper to assume that India and Indonesia are of distinct historical roots. Other differences between the two countries would be in terms of production outlook and economic concerns. Specifically, difficulties in the cost-effectiveness and profitability of textile production have become more apparent within the context of the Indonesian textile industry, albeit the fact that India is affected as well. 

Quilters of Gees Bend  
The importance of the textiles shown in the film, despite the presence of rather simple constructions in addition to the fact that recycled fabric was utilized for production, would be in terms of the core message that such textiles embody. To further expound, the art world most probably placed focus upon the fact that changes or alternatives in textile production, in relation to a more eco-friendly context, may indeed be made successfully. Such a thought in turn, may possibly be translated into the likelihood of accomplishing the same for other products and items as well so as to gain global acceptance and recognition for the applicability of concepts based upon sustainability. Of course, despite such limitations in design and material, such products are without doubt aesthetically intriguing as well.

Handcrafted Textiles and the Fashion Industry   
It is rather apparent throughout the modern society that handcrafted textiles have not been able to penetrate the mainstream fashion industry. However, historically, in some cultures that has long considered the production of handcrafted textiles as an art, such as in India, textiles and the fashion industry are directly interconnected. However, given the shifts in global perspectives regarding the importance of sustainability and the process of globalization, it is most appropriate to assume that the potential of using handcrafted textiles for mainstream fashion purposes has been gaining further thought and global recognition. As a matter of fact, numerous artists in England have already considered handcrafted textiles for fashion related purposes

Khaled Hosseini's Portrayal of Afghanistan.

The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini fulfills many universal themes that explore some of most fundamental issues of humanity, themes that are timeless and mostly familiar. Themes are universal that includes family relationship particularly father and son, inhumane realities of class system, the horrific brutalities of war, the life in America as an immigrant and the real meaning of friendship. Those themes will be perceived after you are being swept with the emotions caused by violence, human rights abuses, love, and redemption. It is a story that basically illustrates the realities of class struggle and Afghanistan s political turmoil and how it greatly affected the lives of those participants. The beauty of this novel and the acquisition of the humanistic insights lie in its characters and story telling. Moreover, it could be set to any kind of culture since it deals with the issues that are universal by which anybody can relate. The plots and twists enriched the characters especially the main protagonists Amir who assumed to be the novel s narrator.
Just by reading the title, a reader can tell that kites are the central symbolism of the novel. The kite symbolizes Amir s and Hassan s childhood memories during monarchical Afghanistan when they still have rich cultural heritage that deeply values tradition and cultural identity. Amir enjoys the unlimited opportunities, the luxury of education and material comfort. The book initially depicts the tension between the Afghanistan different ethnic groups. Amir, the narrator, started his story reminiscing the old days with Hassan, a Hazaran servant and playmate. A Hazaran is one of the ethnic groups in Afghanistan which during those times was considered a minority group that was known for being a servant. A Hazaran with limited opportunities due to discrimination often choose to be a servant thus illiterate. Hassan often receives judgment, persecution and discrimination from some upper class teenagers. Hassan was a servant to Amir yet a companion, a loyal friend, his protector and the one, aside from his Baba s friend, who truly appreciates Amir s gift in creating literature. But Amir and Hassan s sense of attachment and companionship was never considered and realized as friendship by neither Amir back then nor Baba who grew up with Hassan s father, Ali, before the generation.
Never mind those things they (Ali and Baba) share because history isn t easy to overcome. Neither a religion. In the end, I was a Pashtun and he was a Hazara, I was Sunni and he was Shi a and nothing was ever going to change that. (Hosseini 2004, p. 25) Amir.
The friendship of Hassan and Amir primarily symbolizes one of the most debated issues until today- class struggle. Kites became a significant symbolism towards class struggles that greatly govern and dictate Hassan s and Amir s friendship. Even though Hassan shares the same excitement towards kite fighting and even though Hassan is obviously more skilled than Amir, he does not have actually have control over the kite. Hassan may be the one giving techniques and instructions and the one who helps Amir  lift and dive  but at the end it is Amir who claims victory. The kite always belongs to Amir. Their different race and origin automatically defines their role in kite flying. However, flying kites is an activity that brings them together and it allows them to momentarily escape their differences and enjoy a shared sense of attachment, exhilaration and most of all freedom.
The most remarkable part of Amir s life though is when he witness Hassan brutally raped by the upper class teenagers after running his kite. Amir who is being dominated by cowardice did nothing to save Hassan. Amir s childhood in Afghanistan continually haunts him when he failed to protect his loyal and angelic childhood friend Hassan from a savage assault after he was brutally raped by the upper class teenagers in a kite flight. Amir despite Hassan s loyalty did not manage to Amir s betrayal with Hassan sets his life with guilt and the desire to mend his soul. Amir with his deep guilt feeling made him very uncomfortable about what happened. Every time he sees Hassan and his father Ali who continually work with them faithfully reminds him of his cowardice so he selfishly finds a way to get rid of Hassan and his servant father from the house. Amir was subtly cruel to Hassan just as much as he values his friendship. Amir s guilt and realization from Hassan as a loyal friend lead him to the realization of what it means to be a friend, to be human person and ultimately the realization of the bitter realities of those who belong to the lower class.
    The political events and civil war that challenged Afghanistan that destroyed their country, their livelihood and their families  motivated immigrants, which were mostly Muslim to go to the United States and create a new life Amir and Baba were one of those immigrants who struggled to create a new life in America. Baba and Amir went to US because they can afford it but how about those who can not like Hassan and Ali They stayed there facing the civil war with no choice to escape especially with the painful persecution. They were weak and vulnerable with no means of fighting, no education and no sense of pride because of the constructed roles given to them. Worst there was no one to save them. This story also illustrates the life of the immigrants who escaped from their struggling nation who adjust from a different culture and political orientation. The political change and influence brought by the Soviet and the Taliban troops affected those who stayed and those who chose to leave the country. One of the painful consequences of the brutalities of war was the exploitation and destruction of one s tradition and culture (Nyrop, Seekins p.xxi).
    For Baba, Amir s father, United States will always be a foreign country where he can not fully express himself and where he can not fully explore his potentials. Afghanistan and its culture suit his character because he became rich and influential. For him, America s optimism and freedom of choice are far too much which do not conform to his social and cultural orientation. In America, due to multicultural and their feeling of superiority, Baba suffers humiliation and forced to work in a gas station in order to survive. America will never be a home for Baba. For Amir however, America is not only politically free but more importantly America is free of Hassan and his memories. He describes how America affects him like that of a flowing river that cleanse and frees. He willingly opens his wide arms to America from education to lifestyle though he still follows Afghan tradition in terms of courtship and continually creates literature about Afghan setting.
When Amir learned that Hassan is his half brother by which Baba concealed in the longest time up to his grave, his determination to redeem himself grew stronger. He decided to go back to Afghanistan to bring back and to free Sorab, Hassan s son, from the cruelties of Taliban. Amir promises to raise Sorab like his own son in America.  At the end of the novel, Amir is very willing to take all the injuries and pains on Sorab s behalf during kite flying. It was Amir who catches the kite for Sorab just like how Hassan does it for him back their childhood days. He realizes as well that the peaceful Afghanistan he had experienced before will no longer exist. Afghanistan is now dominated by war and terrorism. Amir does not suffer much just like his fellow Afghans who stayed and so he does not belong anymore.
Amir s inability to please and earn the love of his philanthropically generous but emotionally withholding father illustrates the never ending struggle of a son to please and reach the expectations of a father. Baba who demanded Amir to play soccer and kite flying, Baba who perceived Amir s love for books and literature unusual for a boy, Baba who was disappointed that Amir as a boy can not protect himself physically and Baba who as a father was so hopeless that his son can not be like him. They were two extremely individuals who were born with the same gender but different gifts and mind setting. That is part of humanity how parents and sons can not fully accept the individuality of each other that sometimes haunts them deeply for the rest of their lives. The hardest part though is how to face guilt and redemption. People with flaws, who experiences guilt and who recognize their imperfections unconsciously find ways on how to forgive themselves for redemption.
Sometimes, I think everything he your father did, feeding the poor on the     streets, building the orphanage, giving money to friends in need, it was all his     way of redeeming himself. And that, I believe, is what true redemption is, Amir     jan, when guilt leads to good (Hosseini 2004).
Baba is a representation of a typical father who came from the higher class. He anticipated too much from Amir forgetting the reality that his son has his own sense of individuality who finds his own way using his potentials, talents and free will. Baba though was aware of his imperfections but he coped up and faced it through doing good works for other people. His way of redemption benefited many people. For Amir however, redemption means forgiving oneself and accepting his chance to be good again. Rahim Khan tells Amir that there s A way to be good again

Analytical Essay on the Tragic Character of Emma Rouault Bovary in Gustave Flaubert s Madame Bovary.

The theme of tragedy in literature has never been new, even the Ancient Greeks and Romans regularly played tragic dramas for the eager public in the early civilizations. Plato and Aristotle, two of the formidable philosophers in the world even analyzed and scrutinized the impact and purpose of such tragic dramas. Plato believed that tragic drama is mimetic, or a mere illusion that deceive people of the real tragedy of life (Ahrensdorf 158). Aristotle, on the other hand, believed that tragic dramas were cathartic, which is meant to purge people of negative feelings (Waugh 44). Though the philosophers differ in their opinions, they both agree that literature becomes a tragedy through the existence of the hero and the heros hamartia or tragic flaw. Tragic characters in literature are usually determined by a variety of criteria the character should be able to succeed and be happy, since he or she inhibits traits that put him or her unto a high moral pedestal (Waugh 45). This goodness in the protagonist would make him or her a hero or a heroine of the literary piece. And yet, ultimately, the character does fail and does not succeed, because of the said hamartia or flaw, which makes the hero a tragic one. In Madame Bovary, which is one of the finest examples of the French literature featuring the bourgeois society of the nineteenth century, Gustave Fluabert makes a wonderful portrayal of the life of Madame Bovary. Madame Bovary is portrayed as an individual having several character flaws. She has a strong urge to climb the social ladder and is driven by passion and zeal. Her desires and so called needs consume her youth and, eventually, her life. In spite of the character flaws and the immoral paths she traveled, Emma Rouault Bovary is a real hero and the protagonist of the novel.
    Emma Rouault Bovary appears to have several character flaws that may compel us to overlook her goodness. The character flaws of Madame Bovary are the result of the circumstances of her life. Though it can be regarded as a finger pointing at and merely accusing others or certain things of being the cause of Madame Bovarys character development as an obvious horrendous individual, people around her and the society that she was living in played a huge part in the development of her personality the things, events and people around her had made her the tragic heroine she was. Emmas failure cannot be considered her own. Her character illustrates the different ways, through which the circumstances (rather than a free will) determined the life of women in the nineteenth century. If Emma had been rich as Rodolphe, her lover, she would have been free to live the life she wants. We often find her dissatisfaction with the bourgeois society where she lived. This is a justification of her flaws. Emmas difficult plight is a reflection of the difficulties of any individual, who is trapped among the French bourgeoisie. Her difficult life determined her paths. Her society was least merciful to her. Her flaws are overlooked because of her disadvantaged plight. She does appear like a hero in the eyes of the readers. She is, no doubt, the protagonist of the novel.
Emma lived in a disadvantaged society. She had no other means to make a living. Her desperation made her resort to sex to earn money for her expenditures. She was completely helpless in the misogynistic society, in which she lived. She is the product of her circumstances. In spite of the immoral paths she traveled, readers like Emma. It is she who is the protagonist.     The novel Madame Bovary begins in what seems to be the story of Charles Bovary, however, it will be revealed later on that, while Charles does play a very important part in the novel and narration, it will be his second wife, Emma who is the principal character of the novel.
Emma is presented as the protagonist of the novel. She is the principal character, around whom the novel revolves. At the beginning of the novel there is a sense of dullness, which clearly epitomizes Charles Bovarys character and life. We read that he wiped his face with one hand and continued motionless, his eyes lowered. In the evening, at preparation, he pulled out his pens from his desk, arranged his small belongings, and carefully ruled his paper. We saw him working conscientiously, looking up every word in the dictionary (Flaubert 3). Emma Rouault would then be the heroine, who would come waltzing in, turning Charles life upside-down and injecting life into both the novel and Charles personality. We further find that she did not answer, but as she sewed she pricked her fingers, which she then put to her mouth to suck them. Charles was surprised... Her real beauty was in her eyes. Her look came at you frankly, with a candid boldness (Flaubert 10). Though Charles is a very important character, it is Emma who is made to be the heroine, since she is the only one innocent enough and the readers have awish to sympathize with her. We find the author emphasizing her talents as he says that she received good education and so knew dancing, geography, drawing, how to embroider and play the piano (Flaubert 12). In murmurs as she spoke to herself, now joyous, opening big naive eyes, then with her eyelids half closed, her look full of boredom, her thoughts wandering (Flaubert 15). Her characteristics and talents are very much evident in the novel that she is the protagonist in the eyes of the readers.
Emma is undoubtedly a tragic heroine. She is suffering and yet she is also causing other innocent people to suffer like Charles Bovary and their daughter. Paris says in Imagined Human Beings a Psychological Approach to Character and Conflict in Literature that the character of Emma was able to illicit sympathy because she encounters several unfortunate events which are not entirely her fault and yet, she is criticized because of her tragic flaws that brings much more misery to herself and to the other characters (Paris 193). Emma was forced by her circumstances to travel the path of immorality. Her encountered sequences of difficult circumstances and desperate situations that made her follow the wrong paths. Her flaws are therefore overlooked. Emma is viewed by the readers with a sympathetic eye. She is therefore recognized as the protagonist of the novel.
    As Madame Bovary drowns in her illusions and deceptions, there is still that small grain of hope that she might be able to redeem herself and be the exalted heroine of the novel. It is indeed revealed that she is the heroine, but a tragic one at that as she does not redeem herself at all and instead, escapes from the demons she has created and nurtured. These demons are her own innate character flaws or hamartia and they were caused by the people and certain events around her. These factors can be grouped into three aspects the first one is Emmas own identity in the Rouault family the second is Emmas relationships with men (Charles, Leon, Rodolphe and Lheureux) the third and last one is Emmas illusions about romanticism and the bourgeois society. Emmas plight was forced on her by her background and the society where she lived. She is indeed a tragic heroine in spite of the wrong paths she traversed through.
    Emmas family life with the Rouault is one of the causes, which make her a tragic figure. Firstly, she does not have mother, as her mother died early and she is left to the care of her father, who is a drunk, given to frolicking and who does not care for his own daughter. We read that old Rouault would not have been sorry to get rid of his daughter, who was of no use to him... (Flaubert 16). Secondly, the fact that Emma has never felt kinship or real affection is the most likely reason why she has been yearning for it from other people and she finds this in her relations with men. This childhood and early life of hers is a catalyst for her future decisions and actions. This is also the reason why Emma decided to escape from her world, devoid of affection, into the world of emotion-filled books, which she likes reading. The only problem is that Emma connects the passion-filled romantic idealism with that of real affection and love. Thus, when she does not find the passionate intimacy in the marriage with Charles, she chooses to look for it somewhere else. She jumps into a more passionate affair with Rodolphe. He also disappoints her and breaks her expectations. This leaves her heartbroken. When Emma married Charles, she was seeking the passion which the romantic ideals seemed to portray, and instead, she  met disappointment and misery. This relationship with Charles in turn becomes a catalyst for her other relationships that with Leon, Rodolphe and in some sense, with Lheureux. Emma found a sense of belongingness with Leon, a young and handsome man in Yonville. Her relationship with Leon from the beginning was what she considers as sweet and enchanting. This seemingly innocent relationship with Leon is just another of Emmas illusion that her romantic ideals have finally materialized. But the passion which she so desperately wants was not to be found in Leon. If Leon provided companionships and sweetness, it is Rodolphe who found what Emma wants, the carnal fanaticism which she so desperately yearnsas how she describes it, a yearning for the celestial lover (Flaubert 24). But even if Rodolphe had provided a different kind of relationship, Emma would still want better things, things which the bourgeois society seems to want. The bourgeois society (which is the third contributor to Emmas becoming a tragic heroine) is known to be materialistic, and this greed for finer things is what constitutes Emmas relationship with Lheureux. Because of Lheureuxs personality as a money lender and his cunning persuasion in the whole money-lending business, Emma has allowed herself to be drowned in debt. This evil persuasion of the bourgeois society made Emma degrade her life. 
These three factors (Emmas family, Emmas affairs and relationships with the men in her life and, finally, the ideologies of the bourgeois society and romanticism) ultimately make Emma Bovary a tragic character. Her death, which was wrapped with so much pain, left both Charles and the readers rooting for Emmas survival and salvation. However, what Flaubert has created is not the climactic ending of the novel with Emmas death but the full realization that she is indeed the tragic heroine. Even though it seems that Emma committed suicide as an act of cowardice, it actually became an act of bravery for her since Emma chose to kill the immoral being that she has become. Emma was not running away from debts, but running away from the fact that she can cause more damage to her family and to herself. In some ways, even if Charles was meant to be pitied, one could not help but pity Emma more. After all, the miserable and heart-wrenching things she has to go to just to find the full realization of her romantic ideologies, Emma has still been unable to find it.
    Certain events and characters became catalysts to the birth and cultivation of Emmas hamartia or tragic flawand that tragic flaw which makes her the heroine was also what destroyed her Emma was so nave that she has to be pitied and yet, Emma was so nave that she was unable to fully discern that romantic dreams are but an illusion. This restlessness of Emma Bovary coupled with her romantic illusions and the collective ideologies of the 19th century bourgeois society makes Emma throw herself from one affair to the other and this leads to her financial crisis and moral degradation. The novel ends in the pretty Madame Bovary committing suicide by taking in arsenic, as she cannot face the insurmountable debt and loan sharks (in the person of Lheureux) closing in on her and the unhappiness she has been feeling after the unsuccessful results of all her relations. The cause of Emmas failure is nothing but the nature of her society. Emma remains an innocent individual for the readers. She is, no doubt, a character worth sympathy. In spite of the character flaws and the immoral paths she traveled, Emma Rouault Bovary is a real hero and the protagonist of the novel.

Dreams and Reality.

Langston Hughess poem, Harlem is not only the epigraph of Lorraine Hansberrys famous play, A Raisin in the Sun, but it is also its title. The poem and the play obviously deal with the lives of black people, with their grand dreams and innate capacity to survive the terrible reality of their lives.
Though there are quite a few similarities between these two works, this essay focuses on the usage of the themes such as dream, race, poverty and pride. Hughess poem, made up of a series of rhetorical questions, focuses on reality even while talking about the dream, which is deferred indefinitely. The reader gets a feel of, what kind of a dream the poet has. It is a deferred dream What happens to a dream deferred.  This is the first line of Hughess poem which gets answers in the form of repeated questions. One such answer is the title of Hansberrys play. The image that the title brings is one of a shrivelled up fruit this talks about being constantly harried and sometimes, even crushed.
Dream as a theme was one of the most favourite in Langston Hughess works. Hansberry was definitely influenced by Hughess poems. They seemed to have a telling effect on her own dramatic craft because she always envisaged happy homes for blacks while she was quite aware of the pitfalls and endless hurdles that they would have to endure along the way. In both the poet and the dramatist, one can perceive a thought process that is distinctly similar the black man suffers not only because of racial prejudices, but also because of his own follies.  Dreaming is one process that both writers write about extensively. Hughess dreams sound almost incongruous and far from plausible Wealthy negroes have white servants. This is almost wishful thinking, but sincere nevertheless.
The idea of dreaming could also suggest that the dreamer is rarely capable of any great action. However, all great actions are born of great dreams. It is often suggested that the black man is often resigned to his lot. As Mama, a character in the play remarks Seem like God didnt see fit to give the black man nothing but dreams  but He did give us children to make them dreams seem worthwhile.
When Hughes and Hansberry wrote their respective works, the treatment of the black people was still derogatory and even cruel but he could survive because of his aspirations as well as his tenacity. The Youngers family of five lived in a one-room tenement, barely able to exist amicably and comfortably. Harlem, that part of New York, was purportedly the exclusive residential area for blacks. The reality however was that this area was segregated by the white man with squalor, poverty and suffering  which was supposedly the birthright of blacks
Once in a way, the middleclass white man seems to have sympathy for the black mans suffering however white supremacy and inferiority of blacks is the underlying thought in this so called overture of sympathy. Lindner, the white neighbor who offers to buy the Youngers property, states,  for the happiness of all concerned that our Negro families are happier when they live in their own communities. Other members of the Youngers family also encounter open expressions of racial bias and look upon them as an inevitable part of their existence. There is a mixture of disdain and unacceptable resignation towards the attitude of the whites, they come across. They realise that their rights are always subdued and are less of a priority than the rights of the white man. In fact, most of the time, they are not even given the due recognition as ordinary individuals.
The images that Hughes provides in his poem are in line with general views of poverty and deprivation. Fester like a sore and stink like rotten meat  these are two descriptions that bring the reader illustrations of abject poverty. Hansberry has poverty running through her play it is an ever-present feature of the existence of families like the Youngers. There is a certain preoccupation that the characters have, with dreams of a better if not richer life. Their basic natures are shaped because of their economic condition and they feel justified in disliking people for being richer than they are, merely because they are treated the same for their poverty. This is echoed by Beneatha, It makes just as much sense as disliking people cause they are poor, and lots of people do that.
As Hughes suggests that the very fact that the black man dreams is a proof enough for the pride that he feels within him. It might be deferred for sometime, but he dreams, nevertheless. Hansberrys Walter who wants to achieve something big in life realises that he has made a mistake when he uses his mothers insurance money to buy a liquor shop. At the end of the play, however, he agrees with her unshakeable principle in the pride of being black and not doing anything wrong merely to survive or to advance in life. His mother, known to all as Mama, tells him that he is of stronger stock than he could ever imagine and adds, We aint never been that  dead inside
Both Hughes and Hansberry were always proud of being African-American. Both their works express a perceptive treatment of themes such as dream, race, poverty and pride this further demonstrates the common thread that runs between the poem and play. Their works focus on the way in which blacks in a particular socio-economic milieu suffer in many ways but continue to dream. If differences in these two works are to be highlighted, it could only be in the tone. Hughess final italicised question, Or does it explode makes one think that there is a revolutionary streak in him. Hansberry could be rebellious too, but her play ends on a rather subdued approach. The future of the Youngers family might be uncertain but they are all prepared to go forward and face what it has in store for them.

Ragtimes Ending.

E. L. Doctorow s novel entitled Ragtime is composed of a dynamically different experiences, themes, and characters that unexpectedly meet. As their lives become intertwined, the events in their life contribute to the whole plot. Doctorows novel is a very interesting story that depicts a picture of the American social setting during the early 1900s, before the First World War. Ragtime has a complex plot that centers on the theme of liberation, change, and mans search for meaning. Characters, either main protagonists or guests, enter and exit in the story every now and then. Most of the characters in the story are in search of a purpose in their lives, so they complicate their lives in resolving the current situation they are in with their hidden desires.
    The novel centers on three imaginary families from different races and their surprised encounters with historical characters such as Harry Houdini, Sigmund Freud, J. P. Morgan, Evelyn Nisbit, and Henry Ford. These historically prominent characters appear every now and then to contribute to the reflections of the characters as their personal lives are poked by the contemplations of people whose names are famously known. The events of the story open big realities of personal transformation and fulfillment of roles in the society filled with internal conflicts, violence, and suppression. The novel is easy to follow, and despite the complexity of the storyline, the ending chapters give way to an effective resolution of the story.
    So many things are happening in the whole novel that it can get complicated in many parts. However, this complication would only make readers more interested in how the story might turn out in the end. In addition, the author gives a very unexpected and yet successful conclusion for such a complex story. Although it appears that the end is composed of jumbled events, they are not really randomly written because all the circumstances added by the author serve a purpose. The final chapter is a result of choices made by the characters and not merely coincidences of their lives. The events that take place in the last chapter of the novel effectively address the questions and dilemmas in the different events that occurred in the novel.
    The last chapter of Ragtime includes the death of Coalhouse Walker, a black pianist whose wife died as she was trying to save him from an unfair imprisonment. Walker, who became a rebel already, dies in the hands of the police firing squad. Father, the head of the upper class, white family, witnesses the whole event. Despite his unjustified way of dying, Coalhouse is already prepared for this moment as he said early on to the Mother s Younger Brother that his life already ended when his wife died. Coalhouse began in the story as a black American who was ready to challenge the mistreatment of white Americans towards  them. Like all black Americans in the early 1900s, Coalhouse suffered greatly because the society was not yet ready for the change. The significance of Coalhouses character lies on how his choices root deeply from his actual experiences, although they also predetermined how his character would end in the story.
    It should be stressed that a white man should witness the death of Coalhouse. The characters of the two are greatly intertwined in the story as the Fathers wife was the person who adopted Coalhouses child. Father and Mothers marriage is also a significant part of the the story because they end the story by falling out of love. Although, it is important to note that even before Father died, which was towards the end of the novel, their relationship has already become unmanageable. The marital problems they have experienced are attributed to the personal choices they have done and the distance that have grown in their characters  personalities. This can be observed early on in the novel when Father  looked in Mothers eyes to detect there his justice. He found instead a woman curious and alert to his new being  (Doctorow 92). The many circumstances that happened between them pave way for the realization that they are not really compatible, especially because they possess different views in life.
    The adjustments to a changing nation have been really hard for Father, and these would consume him even until the end of the book. Thus, it could not only be mere coincidence that they have lost their love even before the Father s death. The failure of their relationship led to the development of Mother and Tatehs relationship that ended in marriage towards the final chapter of the story. There has been an attraction nurtured between them in the middle parts of the novel, and after a year of Father s death, Tateh proposes to her and  Mother accepts him without hesitation  (Doctorow 269). Towards the end of Ragtime, Tateh also realizes his dream of becoming a filmmaker as he saw the scene of a  bunch of children who were pals, white black, fat thin, rich poor, all kinds, mischievous little urchins who would have funny adventures in their own neighborhood,  which also reveals the hope of an American society free from racism and disunity (Doctorow 269).
    In the timeline of the last chapter of the novel, World War I is already fast approaching. The guest character of J. P. Morgan decides to travel to Egypt to search for inner peace and his life s meaning. He even tries to persuade Henry Ford to come with him but Ford could not leave Michigan. However, Morgan does not succeed in finding what he was looking for in this spiritual trip.  He paced from the west to the east, from the north to the south, though he didnt know which was which. He decided one must in such circumstances make a distinction between false signs and true signs  (Doctorow 262). Morgan is an epitome of all the other characters in the story who are in search of meaning in their lives and purpose. Thus, this Egyptian trip is significant to the themes explored in the book because it highlights the search for truth that the characters are aiming for in the novel. Most parts of the story focus in this theme, directly and indirectly, and it is important to note that not everyone finds the meaning of his or her life.
    The final chapter of Ragtime is a successful denouement for the complicated storyline and it was not merely created by accidental events. The ending is very unpredictable but is also a reasonable and successful ending for such a complex and moving story because the events are a result of all the personal choices and decisions of the characters. There are no coincidences in the last chapter of the novel because the author, in fact, effectively summarized the whole story in the ending.

Writing in the liberal arts personality traits.

Personality traits are the behaviors that human beings display in their daily activities and as they interact with others. These are the characteristics of human beings that describe a persons approach towards life. Each individual has particular way of responding to different stimuli within the environment. This is controlled by exposure and experiences in a persons life.
    This is the trait whereby an individual is self-disciplined, acts dutifully and aims to achieve what heshe has planned. People who display this trait plan their activities and do not do things in a haphazard manner. Conscientiousness creates the urge to achieve great things in a persons life. In my life, I have always been prepared to meet responsibilities and have a well planned schedule of my activities. I have set high goals in my life some of which I have achieved while others I have been unable to accomplish. Determination to make ends meet has been my motivating factor despite the fact that I have been brought up in a humble family. My financial journey has been encountered by many challenges and achieving my obligations has been a big task though I have never given up the struggle to attain stability in my life. Since my life in primary school, I have always had a timetable of my activities so as to meet my planned goals. I have been responsible enough for the reason that being the first born in our family I had to take care of my siblings when my parents were away from home. I like being orderly and pay attention to details. My siblings have always viewed me like a leader since I have always taken up responsibilities that demand command from me and directed others to do things according to the plan. In every situation I find myself in, I am always prepared to encounter the responsibilities and consequences involved in every duty assigned.
    This is the trait whereby an individual likes being in company of others and has positive attitude towards other people. Extroverts are people who have positive emotions and enjoy the company of others. They draw attention from other people, are assertive, they like talking and they take action to achieve their goals. In my primary school days, I was the team leader of the scouts and I managed to lead the team for five years. After joining high school, I was elected the treasurer of journalism club and was involved in writing articles that we published every term. When I joined the University, I was elected the secretary general of the students union after a competitive campaign when I was a second year student. I have interacted with many people after graduation some of them are my seniors others are my juniors and colleagues.
    This is the characteristic of being cooperative and companionate about others. It is a trait that is portrayed by people who are not antagonistic or suspicious about others. Individuals with this trait seek harmony with others and appreciate getting along with others. They are optimistic about life, trust other people, they are friendly and honest with everybody. Since my childhood days, I have been interested in the affairs of other people and have approached other peoples problems with a lot of concern. I have sympathized with my friends and have always tried to make other people feel at ease. Taking time to solve other peoples problems and listening to other people has been my motto.

The Problem of Suffering, Separation and Alienation in The Death of Ivan Ilych by Leo Tolstoy and The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka

Leo Tolstoys The Death of Ivan Ilych written at the end of the nineteenth century and Franz Kafkas The Metamorphosis published during the first part of the twentieth century are both not only timeless masterpieces but also testaments of the physical and mental suffering that coexisted with bourgeois lifestyle. Both authors were once participants in this suffering and, just like the protagonists in their works, they have gone through a significant period of existential crisis in their lives and have somehow resolved it before death. The Death of Ivan Ilych and The Metamorphosis tell of the struggle of two men against the society that depersonalized and desensitized them until they were able to break free from this pressure at such a great cost  the cost of death. Both novels lend themselves to several striking parallelisms and a few obvious differences as to the problem of suffering and alienation. The goal of this paper is to discuss such similarities and differences.

Parallelisms as to the Agents of Suffering and Renewal
Apart from the fact that the authors of both novels both were strong enemies of bourgeois tradition and that either used flashback or reversal approach, there are a number of significant similarities between The Death of Ivan Ilych and The Metamorphosis. The protagonists are similar as well as many other factors including financial pressures and a seeming lack of choice. Also, the characters of one novel have corresponding counterparts in the other one.
As previously mentioned, one of the most obvious similarities between the two novels is the presence of the protagonist who lives an artificial life, i.e., a life that he believes he does not want to live but nevertheless a life he has adopted. Both Ivan Ilych and Gregor Samsa somehow live their lives not out of a free personal choice but rather either because of an inner craving for approval or a mere lack of resolve to assert himself and his own personal convictions. Both Ivan and Gregor are portrayed as weak men in the sense that throughout their lives prior to their ill-fated conditions, they have been subservient to societys expectations of them. Ivan lives a life according to what society expects of a young legal gentleman who believes he belongs to the upper class. In a similar way, Gregor has religiously conformed to the expectation of a typical bourgeois society that the most capable member of the household should be the one to handle and fulfill all familial obligations.
The complaints of Ivan and Gregor are similar. One of Ivans complaints is expressed by the line He alone knew that with the consciousness of the injustices done him, with his wifes incessant nagging, and with the debts he had contracted by living beyond his means, his position was far from normal. Gregors complaint, in a similar way, is echoed by his own words when he said, Ive got the torture of traveling as a salesman,eating miserable food at all hours, constantly seeing new faces, no relationships that last or get more intimate. From these complaints, we can clearly see the agents of suffering in both protagonists. For Ivan, it is society itself, his wife and the pressures of his creditors. For Gregor, it is the pressures of work and his superiors.
The aforementioned complaints are nothing but manifestations of a seeming absence of free will, which is another parallel theme for both protagonists in both novels. Ivans helplessness is shown in the line It was then that it became evident on the one hand that his salary was insufficient for them to live on, and on the other that he had been forgotten, that what was for him the greatest and most cruel injustice. Ivans whole family treated him with utmost indifference when finances had become low and this made him feel so much alienated that he had to push himself to find immediate solutions to the problem at hand. Similarly, Gregors lack of right to make his own choices is evident in So it was just a sum Gregors savings that really should not be touched and that had to be put away for a rainy day but the money to live on had to be earned by him. Gregor himself, his parents and sisters helplessness are justification for his decision to be the one to make money for the family. This absence of free will in both characters is one of the most obvious signs of their own suffering.
Financial problems seem to be another major cause of the suffering of both Ivan and Gregor and are a recurring theme in both novels. Ivan wanted money badly when he realized in 1880 that his salary was insufficient for the family to live on and that somehow he felt that he had been forgotten. Gregors financial problems, on the other hand, are reflected in the line Once Ive gotten the money together to pay off my parents debt to himIm going to do it without fail. Both characters have shown subservience to money in that they seem to have somehow chosen jobs they did not enjoy doing and that they have chosen them only out of their despair for the mere helplessness of the people who depended on them.
Unsupportive characters seem to dominate the stories and in a way help perpetuate the suffering of the protagonists. Ivans wife Praskovya Fedorovna was a jealous and overbearing woman and as more and more children came, she became increasingly querulous and ill-tempered. She was also fond of blaming and nagging him. Gregors whole family, on the other hand, seem the burden that traps him in his endless and difficult routine. Despite the fact that he had transformed into a vermin, we could still hear him pleading to his superior, I also have my parents and my sister to worry about...Dont make things harder for me than they already are.
Some characters in the The Death of Ivan Ilych and The Metamorphosis are somehow neutral, which means they have a vague attitude towards the protagonist, i.e., either totally indifferent to him or sometimes supporting him and at other times opposing him. Ivans friend and colleague Peter Ivanovich, Ivans fellow judge and closest friend, was the first to notice the expression on the dead mans face during the wake and somehow felt remorse and sympathy towards Ivans death. However, during the funeral service, Peters apathy was witnessed when he did not yield to any depressing influence and was the first one to leave  and that right after Ivans death Peter thought that he would apply for his brother-in-laws transfer of office as Peter believed this would make his wife happy, making readers wonder if he was really Ivans closest friend or just another one of his colleagues. In The Metamorphosis, Gregors sister Grete was too indifferent towards him when she raised her fist at him while glaring at him with piercing eyes and when she accidentally caused a bottle of corrosive medicine to fall on Gregor causing a glass splinter to wound him in the face and the corrosive fluid to flow around him. Moreover, Grete was the first person who suggested that they should get rid of Gregor as he was disturbing the boarders. In both novels, Peter and Grete are almost insignificant in the protagonists spiritual, thus not helping them at all in their spiritual transformation and recovery.

Parallelisms as to the Phenomenon of Suffering and Alienation
The previously mentioned causes of suffering that surrounded our main characters are the ones responsible for the perpetuation of their suffering.
The existential crisis in the lives of both Ivan Ilych and Gregor Samsa was a rather long process that started with a first symptom  feelings of alienation or the feeling that they are not living their lives according to their own true nature and that something seems to be a miss. This, however, did not make them question the way they live but rather made them choose to continue the masquerade until only some time before death when they finally had to confront the very questions that they had chosen to ignore ever since.
In Ivans case, his pretenses somehow started when he was a child of a rather neutral character He Ivan was neither as cold and formal as his elder brother nor as wild as the younger, but was a happy mean between theman agreeable man. Such neutrality of character was an indication of an inner struggle to walk the thin line of approval. No matter how heroic it might have seemed to Ivan himself and to others, his true self was longing for a clear authentic expression. Tolstoy pointed out this inner conflict in the line  He had done things which  made him feel disgusted with himself when he did them (7). Ivans lack of authenticity and lack of truthfulness towards himself was also very clear when he slipped, fell and hurt his side with the knob of the window frame  but never has he mentioned anything about his pain until his transformation into a vegetable.
Gregor Samsas fake life, on the other hand, had perhaps started with his work. An inner struggle can be seen in Gregors words when he said If I didnt hold back for my parents sake, I would have quit long ago. I would have marched up to the boss and spoken my piece from the bottom of my heart. He would have fallen off the desk. Gregor was clearly living a double-life satisfying his bosses and at the same time cursing them. This was exactly the same attitude he had towards his overbearing family, whose youngest member  his sister Grete  he could not even bear to ask to help him with the chores though God knows how much he wanted to. Little did Gregor know that when he got accustomed to such pride and pretenses, it further blurred his identity  until one day he too, just like Ivan, was forced to answer his own questions. Just like Ivan, Gregor too was indifferent towards his own internal conflict, his own internal pain. Though he was already in an animal state, he struggled to get up and get dressed and he even condemned himself by saying Just dont stay in bed being useless . Gregor was not ignorant of the fact that he was not human anymore at that time. He was rather indifferent to it, remaining blind to the truth that was already staring in his face, or maybe he just simply got used to not seeing the truth.
The perpetual feelings of guilt, pretenses and inner conflicts experienced by both protagonists have little by little dragged them further and further towards their inevitable fate  the so-called punishment for all their lies and self-imposed suffering. Both Ivan and Gregor, in the end, have become horrible mutations whose short lives spoke of everything but the ones they used to live. Ivan turned into a vegetable who even needed to have someone help him with his excretions. Gregor, on the other hand, turned into a monstrous vermin whose many legs lay helplessly before his very eyes. Ivans and Gregors active lives of self-sacrifice suddenly turned upside down. They have become everything that they were not and as men of change and action, they were both forced to accept for the very first time something that they could not change.
In these situations, both men were forced to admit the truths about themselves and for the very first times in their lives, they have ceased to act artificially, having stopped manipulating their lives, themselves and others and began confronting the things that they could never change, including death. Ivan was forced to confront unpleasantness and pain versations with his inner voice in the last part of the novel, Ivan was enlightened as to the shallowness of the life he has lived. Eventually, however, he gave up his life with the words Death is finishedit is no more. These last words of Ivan mean that finally his physical life which he looked at as death was indeed finished and that he welcomed new life. His death has therefore become the vehicle of his salvation (Ivan Ilych). Gregor, on the other hand, was forced to question his previous existence while he was a monstrous vermin. Right before his death and upon hearing his sisters suggestion of having to get rid of him, Gregor, for the first time after several months of hateful sacrifice, felt an unadulterated deep emotion and love towards his family and upon hearing his sisters suggestion that he should be gotten rid of, his head sank down to the floor and he breathed his last.
Some Noteworthy Differences
One of the biggest differences between The Death of Ivan Ilych and The Metamorphosis is mainly on the degree of difficulty that the protagonists have experienced. Obviously, Ivan was rather more fortunate of the two. He had a nurse in the person of Gerasim, his personal helper whose example of patience and insight somehow intrigued Ivan himself and eventually opened him up to a world where he could accept helplessness, discomfort, pain and most of all, death. Gregor, on the other hand, was shunned by everyone including his own family and unlike Ivan who died in the midst of his loved ones Gregor died alone and was uncared for, his wounds untreated and his body ill-fed.