A Different Style, A Different View An Analysis of Jarrells The Lost Children

Many poems have been written about motherhood. Some of them trigger nostalgic sentiments about childhood, while others simply lead to realizations about a mothers sacrifice. In Randall Jarrells poem titled, The Lost Children, the author employs a complex narrative style and theme in order to provide a different view of motherhood. Composed of ten uneven stanzas, the poems narrative angle, timeline and theme make it uniquely different from other poems of the same subject.

Assuming a female persona, Jarrell presents a unique narrative angle. First, he employs a first-person point of view using I and me which helps establish the personas authority in the subject. This is evident in the first stanza where she narrates her experience as a mother of two girls, one fair, one darkone alive, one dead (1-2). From the way she narrates her experience, she projects confidence and control of her situation but as the poem continues, this confidence weakens and is eventually lost. To effect this change, Jarrell shifts the angle of narration from the first to the second-person point of view. In the second stanza, she addresses an unseen addressee using the pronoun you, although it can be argued that she is only talking to herself. Nevertheless, this angle of narration suggests the idea that as the child grows up, the mother loses control of the situation. The shift in narrative angle lessens the personas grasp of the subject, thus she says, It is strange to carry inside you someone elses body (8-9). These lines project her difficulty to comprehend her experience and to control her fate.

The timeline that Jarrell employs also makes the poem creatively interesting. First, he opens the poem with the present, then reminisces the past in the second stanza, and finally provides a great leap into the future in the following stanzas. The progressive phase that Jarrell uses makes the readers long to read on. As they read the poem, they develop some curiosity to find out how the girl transforms, and how the mother feels about the changes her daughter undertakes. The use of the varying timeline thus allows readers to realize that along with the daughters transformation is her mothers growing sentimentality about the loss of her child.

Moreover, the theme of the poem makes it a lot different from other poems of motherhood. Poems discussing motherhood usually project a mothers love and sacrifice in raising her kids, but this poem shares the isolation that the mother feels as she feels the distance between her and her daughters. Jarrell applies juxtaposition and irony in presenting the mothers view of her experience. She compares the dark one to the fair one, and realizes the irony that the dark one Isnt dead but has everlasting life (59-60). This means that the dead daughters memories live on despite her absence. Meanwhile, the fair one who lives is lost. The line, I keep wondering where she is (56) connotes that although the daughter exists, her mother cannot feel her presence for the daughter has lost the child in her.

Jarrells creative use of the narrative angle, timeline and theme to suggest his message is what makes the poem worthy of literary merit. Also, his attempt to portray a female persona despite his male gender adds to the overall effect of the poem. In sum, despite the sentimental mood of the persona, Jarrell manages to control the poems tone with the use of varying narrative angle and timeline. Likewise, using isolation as the theme, he succeeds in presenting the weariness of a mother, and the universal experience of human longing for the past.

Long Days Journey into Night

A Long Days Journey into Night gives the readers the true nature of what to expect in the title of the story itself. In Eugene ONeills play, all characters are making their long journey into the darkness. What was once a happy and good life became a sad and depressing one. Each character has at least one personal problem that bothers them and all of these crisis are connected with the way things used to be. The story gives the audience a feeling of what goes on behind closed doors of a family that is bombarded with many issues. The most compelling situation is the fact that everything takes place within a single household. As the problems appear, the anger and frustration of the characters towards each other become more intense. In a literal sense, the day journeys into the night as the fog rolls in with the darkness of the sun set thereby creating tension. The past is the trigger that pushes all the characters to act the way they do. All the three male characters turn to alcohol as a way of escaping their past but little by little, they are forced to accept their fault and responsibility that led to their familys dysfunction. As the readers enter the world of the Tyrone family, it is not hard to notice that the issue of the past greatly affected them so much so that the past envelops their present as well as their future (ONeill).

The play begins one fateful day in August 1912 in the residence of the Tyrone family. In the first act, it is revealed that Mary is struggling with addiction from morphine while Edmund has begun to cough violently and later on in the play, it shall be revealed that he has tuberculosis. Little by little, the addiction of Mary, sickness of Edmund and the habitual alcoholism of the three Tyrone men occupy most of the plot. It can easily observed that the issues bombarding the main characters seem to form a repetitious cycle because all arguments seem to center on these issues. In a way, the repetitious plot leaves a message that this is not a remarkable day and in the Tyrone family, having this kind of experience is normal (ONeill).

The three men in the Tyrone family are James, the father and his two sons Jamie and Edmund. Two issues were partly revealed in the first Act, Marys illness and Edmunds tuberculosis. The Tyrone men continues to remind Mary to take care of herself and they always offer their congratulations as their way of telling her how proud they are that she is battling her addiction. They graze upon the surface of the issue but they quickly turn from it. The Tyrone family acknowledge the existence of a problem but after dealing with it on the surface, they jump away from it. They are good at bringing up the problem and them running away from it by formulating an obvious denial that they are all fine. The second issue that was partly unveiled is Edmunds tuberculosis. Both James and Jamie know that he will be positively diagnosed of such an illness but for Marys sake, they both agree that what Edmund has is nothing serious. Mary will be deeply devastated because her father died of tuberculosis and the whole family knows that even the slightest problem could cause Marys relapse (ONeill).

There are several scenes that conveys a message that the past dominates the characters in the present. In the first act, Jamie said that he cannot forget the past. He is talking about his mothers drug addiction but this comment is a lot more significant than this. Almost all of the interactions of the family members during their long days journey into the night is influenced by their past one way of another. Just like what Mary said in Act 2 scene 2, their past has become their present and their future as well. A big part of the play is alloted to dramatizing how the story came out to be like this. The miserliness of James is mostly responsible for it and this has become a recurring pattern. The addiction of Mary began because of his unwillingness to hire a competent physician and the life of Edmund was put in danger because he was sent to a public sanatorium in order to save money. The other recurring patterns are the fact that Mary keeps on trying to break her addiction but she fails every time. Jamie never got over the drinking habit that he inherited from his father and the same goes with Edmund whose alcohol consumption has become a repeated pattern (ONeill).

Communication breakdown is one of the themes of the play because time and time again, the viewers are forced to hear the same arguments of the characters yet nothing seems to be resolved.  An example of this situation can be seen in Act 2 scene 2 when Mary uses Edmunds tuberculosis as an excuse for her to go back to her addiction after which, she apologized and told him that she did not use him as an excuse and that was not her intention at all. Edmund asked Mary what she expects and she replied by saying nothing.

According to her, she did not blame Edmund but her dilemma lies in the fact that how can Edmund believe her when she cannot believe in her own self. She has become a liar but a long time ago, she could not bring herself to lie, not even once. Times have changed because today, she has to lie, even to herself. She admitted that it is indeed difficult for others to understand her when she cannot even understand herself. She has already lost the identity that she once believed she had and it seems that she just stopped living forward. She chooses to live in the past and wallow in her misery because her life them was much better than what it is now (ONeill). The family members quarrel with each other but they often hide their true feelings to one another and as such, the denial here is very apparent. Edmund denies that his mother uses morphine again and she on the other hand, denies the tuberculosis of Edmund. It can be learned that these characters feel that it is better to avoid the problems than deal with them.

When all the characters of of the story are sober, they refuse to accept their faults and acknowledge their mistakes. Together, they are good in blaming other members of the family to argue that they are but the victims of uncontrollable situations. In order to escape their delusions and arguments, they turn to liquor for comfort and in Marys case, morphine. The liquor and the morphine tend to ease the past hurts and at times when they are filled with false courage, they own up to their own faults and learn how to forgive. It is a sad fact that amidst the chaos no one took the initiative to overcome their addiction. Even though at times Jamie says that he may be persuaded to seek help if her mother becomes sober, he still lack the sincerity because he refuses to take responsibility for his own actions (ONeill).

Due to the fact that the present troubles are deeply connected with the past, there is little to work with in the future. The past continues to exert a tight grip so much so that the entire Tyrone family believe that they do not have any hope in changing their situation. The best that they can do is to passively accept their fate as evidenced by James statement in Act 4 when he said that all that they can do is to try to be resigned again. Unfortunately for Mary, the past caught up with her present because she regressed to her childhood memories from the convent thereby completely shutting out her present (ONeill).

Paradox is the dominant figure of speech that dominates the play.  The main theme of the story is the past controlling the present but paradoxically speaking, the past is the present and the future. Alcohol is one of the primary motifs of the play. It is noticeable that the three men in the story all tried to dull their senses with alcohol in order to escape their past but no matter how many whiskeys they drink, they cannot seem to fight it and as such, they are forced to confront each other and to accept responsibility for their part in the family burdens as well as in Marys fate. In Act 4, Edmund confronted James about his experience while he was sailing for Buenos Aires. While he was on the deck witnessing the moonlight and listening to the relaxing sound of the water, he felt deeply connected with nature and he seemed to one with the sea. According to him, this unforgettable experience made him appreciate peace and unity as if there were no past and future. This encounter changed Edmund and taught him to find the meaning of his existence for the first time. His whole life has been filled with trouble and restlessness but this experience at sea took him outside of time and outside of the past. It is of no wonder why he treasured this trip so much because his entire family is dictated by their past  and according to the pay, there is no way that they can escape it yet just one brief moment Edmund became free from the past. Yet, time is indeed fleeting and he cannot live in this state for eternity but at least he was able to discover what freedom taste like (ONeill).

In Act IV, Jamie frankly tells Edmund that he wants to see him become a great success but he must keep his guard because Jamie will do everything to see him fail. He wants to take revenge and he cannot help but think these things. This is an example of a display of frankness in the story. It is no secret that Jamie is a bad influence on Edmund and because he cannot let go of the past, he does not want his brother to move on either. The frankness of the characters in the play suggests that the Tyrone family do not need to mask their feelings. The pain that they are all feeling fills their personality completely thereby pushing their nature so close to th surface. Another example of this frankness is in Act II when Mary speaks of her past in a monologue that resulted from her adduction. As the drug takes effect, she babbles a little but remains aware of her condition. She involuntarily talks about her longing for her life when she was still a little girl. She speaks as if she is speaking to her past self just to ease her present loneliness (ONeill). The final act is likewise important because it portrays that the Tyrone men reach for one another as deeply as anyone can ever do but it leaves the character of Mary.

The family loses faith in each other and as a consequence, they completely lost sight of the future. There are times when they act like there are inevitable forces at work that are out to get them. In addition to this situation, both Jamie and Edmund lose their belief in God and such fact is partly because Catholicism is the religion of their father who is lukewarm in their faith. Those who watched the play capture only the harsh realities of family life thereby failing to recognize the contradiction within the dialogues. The pain is deep but there are responses and situations that alleviate the pain. The essence of this play is a mixture of denial, abuse and acceptance. All characters except Mary changed because at the end, James, Jamie and Edmund has come to accept the truth about how they are but Mary displayed denial until the very end. This is the difference between the honesty of the men in the play and the self-deception of the woman. There is a chance, albeit a small one, that Edmund will get well and that James will stop drinking. Jamie also has the slightest opportunity to branch out unlike Mary who is stuck in her past dreams and her web of lies.

The genre where Long Days Journey into Night belongs to is a tragedy, it leaves the audience feeling cathartic by simply watching the series of emotional events.  It is incredible how the play speaks to a person in many levels. It relates not only to the authors understanding of the dark side of men as they struggle to find the true meaning in their lives but his ability to capture its essence and leave it for the audience to ponder upon. The viewers will learn to love and hate the Tyrone family. They have become trapped in their own world with each others past, feeling guilty yet innocent at the same time, loving, scorning, and understanding each other yet not understanding them completely, forgiving but still doomed not to forget.

Kate Chopins The Awakening

Kate Chopins novel The Awakening has inspired many women to rethink what they are going through and seek freedom from their oppressors. Kate Chopins novel, The Awakening is intended to let the public know that women are being oppressed by the society itself. The society assumed women to act a certain way because that is how women should act, not giving them a chance to think for their own, boxing them in that category that is hindering the growth of womens artistic side and the power to think on their own.

Madame Lebrun parrot and mocking bird represent Mademoiselle Reisz and Edna in the story, both characters like the parrot and the mocking bird have both limited space to move in, they are both trap in a cage and in Ednas case, trap in a patriarchal system, where women are not heard and has no say.

The lady in black along with the two unnamed lovers has accrued in the novel more than once, she seems senseless to most of the readers that have read the novel The Awakening by Kate Chopin, but other critics that have devoted themselves to understanding the smaller details in the novel of Chopin. The lady in black and the unnamed lovers have a symbolic meaning to Ednas independence. Mademoiselle Reisz, a pianist who Edna looks up to as her guidance to gaining independence, like the lady in black also wears black clothing and is always near lovers, the lovers being Edna and Robert.

Joseph Church and Christa Haveners article about the Kate Chopins novel The Awakening, has suggested its readers to read between the line and to analyze the involvement of the minor character in the life of Edna and how it is impossible to define identity and freedom instantly, the impossible simultaneous requirement for defining identity and freedom from definition (Church  Havener 197).

In the article of Joseph Church and Christa Havener, they have discussed that Mademoiselle Reisz is the opposite of the lady in black, because unlike Mademoiselle Reisz, the lady in black only follows the lovers and not dictate them what they should do next, nor did the lady in black influenced the lovers to do anything. Mademoiselle Reisz has also followed her lovers, Edna and Robert and has encouraged them to be together and to pursue their love, that in the end failed.

In Joseph Church and Christa Havener article, they have quoted from Donald Ringe that the lady in black and the unnamed lovers difference from Edna who cant commit herself truly, whether in love or in religion, Edna, who never really achieves the loss of self in love for another, and who is never portrayed as submitting herself to worship God in communion with others (Church  Havener 197).

As the novel progress the independence of Edna widens when she submerges herself in the water and tries to swim, she doesnt really know how to swim prior to the incident. When Edna went a little too far and realized that she can swim and that she wasted her time splashing like a baby, in this passage, it is like the infant inside her is growing or maturing.

When she got home she tested her new found independence by not doing what her husband asked her, going to bed, sipping wine, she has rejected all this, making her feel more independent, making her feel more separate from his husband. The next day, she asked Robert to accompany her for Sunday mass, this is another sign of independence, she has never asked a boy out and it is not how women usually act in her time.

In the novel, Chopin has written different kinds of women, not only about the persona of Edna, she has also written about women that can rebel the norm and still be look at the way society expects them to be, a mother-women.

The mother-women is being criticized by critics because they dont truly understand what is in-between the context, Chopin did not intend for the public to critic those who choose to be mother-women, she suggested that the mother-women are what society expects every woman to be, but is not necessarily evil. Edna feels as if motherhood is being handed to her and she is taking it blindly, although she loves her kids, but she always feels a slight relief whenever they are sent to relatives or take vacations somewhere else without her, Chopin has described Adele to be the very opposite of Edna, Adele is to be described as the ideal woman to be a mother woman, she was described to have grace and majesty (Chopin 17) that most queens have.

In Kathleen M. Streaters analysis of the character Adele and being a mother-woman, she has summed up that Chopin did not intent Edna to be a mother-woman, she doesnt exist in Adele, and, importantly, this non-existent, idealized woman cannot be realized by Edna (Streater 412), that is why Edna always wanted more and is never satisfied, unlike Adele that is contended with how her life is now. Edna looked at Mademoiselle Reisz to be her role model, which Streater think doesnt have the slightest potential as Adele have, As such, Reisz is barely presented as a worthy alternative to Adele (Streater 413), because was Edna is too blinded by what she wants and her perception of freedom, she has failed to realize as what Streater calls authentic feminist potential (Streater 412) that Adele obtain. In the novel, even Chopin has described Mademoiselle Reisz differently to Adele, Mademoiselle Reisz was described to have her body settled into ungraceful curves and angles that gave it an appearance of deformity (Chopin 69), far from the how she has described Adele.
In the end of the novel even Edna has seen, that what Mademoiselle Reize says is nonsense and it has only poisoned her mind and her perception of being free, Edna looked down at Mademoiselle Reisz and wondered how she could have listened to her venom so long (Chopin 53).

Streater believes that Chopin has described two kinds of women who both symbolizes feminism, one through Adele and another through Edna, although most readers and critics recognizes the feminism traits that Edna has shown all throughout the novel, they have failed to notice that Adele has a much better hope of being a symbolism of real feminist than Edna.

In Ednas character Chopin has showed what radical feminist might end up too, in Streaters article, she has also stated that we need both the radical side of feminism and the realist side of feminism. Being radical can catch the attention of the society and let them know what the real situation is, while the realist influences people but still do what they ought to do in Adele and Ednas case, to raise their children and teach them not to follow or at least think of what society has done to its people, She appeals to both the radical and realist feminist blended in every woman, and we need both (Steater 415).

In the end when the time has come for Edna to choose her destiny, the influence of Adele overpowered the influences of Mademoiselle Reisz, and her love for her children has overpowered her intensions to be free, she went into the water and never returned. Although it is not certain that she did commit suicide or not, the act of never returning from the sea symbolizes that she is dead.

Many critics have scrutinized Ednas death and in Sean Heustons article, he has focused his analysis in the death of Edna. He said that although most critics have assumed that Edna did commit suicide, the novel itself did not state that Edna did commit the act, In short, most critics indicate that Edna commits suicide, but The Awakening itself does not (Heuston 224).

He argued the passage which most critics claim to have suggested that Edna did commit suicide, A bird with a broken wing was beating the air above, reeling, fluttering, circling disabled down, down to the water (Chopin 120), he said that even if the bird did have a broken wing, these will not cause the bird to die or at least drown, the bird will only float in the sea, Although a broken wing would be a very serious hindrance for a bird and might well lead to the birds death (Heuston 225).

Heuston has argued that when Edna was walking down the beach, she did not think that her children were the antagonist in her life, She was not thinking of these things when she walked down to the beach (Chopin 120).

He also said that the scenario of Edna in the swimming in the lake happened twice, first when she first learned how to swim, she has also swam out in the lake without realizing it, Chopin wrote that it was like an encounter with death, Edna also had flashes and seen death before her eyes in that scenario, She made no mention of her encounter with death and her flash of terror (Chopin 32). The scenario suggest that Edna could have swam further than she did when she last swam, but it was not intentional, she was not attempting to commit suicide and if she did die in the end it might be subconscious, the possibility that Edna intended only at a subconscious or unconscious level to commit suicide (Heuston 226). In another scene, before Ednas alleged suicide and in the novels last few paragraphs, the novel never indicated that Edna wanted to die and the passage, it was too late the shore was far behind her, and her strength was gone (Chopin 121), tells its readers that she probably did not notice how far out she swam and not realizing how far she is, she did not calculate that she might not be able to make it back to the shore, thus living herself to die. Adding that even if Edna wanted to die that time, she was not aware of it, she was not aware of her psychological state and all through out the novel, Ednas character was never stable, she did not know what she really want to do, her mind is always lost and wondering, she wants to die, she is not conscious of this desire (Heuston 226).

Kate Chopins work on The Awakening has been critiqued by a lot of people and they all have there say to what the novel really wants to portray, it is obvious that Kate Chopin is writing about feminism, but what does she want to the feminist to see.

The novel The Awakening has been compared to a lot of other novels, like how Patricia Bradley has compared it with The Birth of Tragedy by Nietzsche, she has not only argued what the novel is about, she has also researched about how the novel was written, who the influences of Kate Chopin is and what her influences has influenced in the novel.

She has stated the women in the novel of Chopin only play the limited role of women in Nietzscheans The Birth of Tragedy, limited role women can play in a Nietzschean script (Bradley 56). The Birth of Tragedy is considered a masculine literature that women often have limited roles in, unlike the novel of Kate Chopins novels that have embraced femininity like in her novel The Awakening.

The presumed death of Edna in the end of the novel in the sea can be linked to the resurrection Nietzsche has written, Bradley has pointed that the idea of Edna being resurrected in the water The death the reader knows must follow, however, is affirmed, but in terms that echo the Nietzschean concept of eternal recurrence (Bradley 59), in the novel when Edna was standing in front of the sea, she felt resurrected and entering the water made her feel like she was being born, She felt like some new-born creature, opening its eyes in a familiar world that it had never known(Chopin 120).

The novel The Awakening has more symbolic meaning than first presumed Kate Chopin has written and given clues to even the smallest details in the novel. From what the society dictates women and the solution womens problem, Streater said that Chopin wants us to acknowledge that working with only the radical feminist and without realist feminist can end their work to shambles, although it is a quicker solution, it is also something a dead end, the realist feminist can help put the ideas of the radical feminist in order.

Having eureka or not the impact of plays endings

Plays follow a pattern which guides the chronology and arrangement of major scenes of the play. The way this pattern was organized is made in such a way that they can heighten the suspense and capture the interest of the readers while they read the play. Since a play is enlivened by changing scenes and often differing paces, the transition from one part to another must be handle with scrupulous attention, leaving no immense gap or ensure that details are workable, if not totally harmonious.  It is in the ending of the play where a resolution is usually offered. A solution to all problems encountered by the characters are provide to pave the way for a consistent end a mystery is unlocked, a secret is revealed, or an event occurs to change the lives of the characters forever.  All of these sew the detailed resolutions.

In William Shakespeares Othello The moor of Venice, the denouement unfolds with the revelation of major details in the play. These details were exposed under the greatest clarity. Roderigo was part of the conspiratorial plan to kill Cassio whereas Othello was not. The telling of these detail makes us see the picture clearer. Even if Othello kills himself, we would not suspect that it was out of guilt why he did that. With that act, Shakespeare only rendered a tragic and dramatic ending to this classic play. The protagonist dies and while the hurly-burly has remained, at least they have dwindled, and are expected to be gone soon even if the play already closes off.

Oedipus the King, written by Sophocles also bear a tragic ending. Oedipus plucked his eyes, symbolizing his guilt-ridden realization of the serious sin he has done and the inescapable shame that comes with it. When his ignorance was broken and he found out that he has married his mother, he readily felt the vileness and impurity of himself. This ending was very powerful and meaningful as it reveals one vital thing  that the protagonists, no matter how flawless they may seem, are not exactly perfect. They are also vulnerable to losses and pains, committing sins and penalties, just like what happened to Oedipus.

Lastly, in Trifles, the manner by which the play was ended was more delicate and suspenseful. The mentioning of the transpirations was slow. There was a great deal of talking about the characters behaviors and their actions and attitudes towards one another. This technique by Susan Glaspell only builds suspense with admirable talent and control.

As the two women, Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale let go of the bird, the suspense finally allowed us to breathe, although not yet completely. The play will still lead us to a seemingly anticlimactic, but actually low-profiled yet vigorous ending. Without gore or excessive drama, Mrs. Hale ended the story by answering Mr.

Henderson and implying the success if their cover-up

The endings of these plays have different goals they can give the final clarity, leave something for the readers to think about and challenge their present actions. These endings are very important as they give the play the last chance to make a stand and imprint a last point to the readers.

The Road by Cormac McCarthy

It was Cormac McCarthy who wrote the book about two main characters, a father and a son and their journey for survival. The Road, the name of the book, is about the life changing experiences of the characters during post apocalyptic era. It highlights on the relationship of the father and son as they learn from each other how to do your utmost in becoming humane despite losing the life of the world they were previously living. Aside from a connection built up naturally as father and son, their relationship was strengthened by their strong bond and lifes wisdom gained from their experience.

The characters in the story may be unnamed but their names may be not necessary as the story was still very well told without it. The book described post-apocalyptic era in America which led everyone to die of hunger or if still surviving, to eat flesh of other humans. Environment is barely breathing and there is great scarcity of food. The father and his child walked towards the south so they will not freeze with the coming bad weather. In their hope of finding other survivors they can rely on, they encounter gangs or bad people who would not think twice of killing just to survive. The scenario was terrifying but they remained strong and cooperative for each other. They felt sorry for each other especially the father because he did not want that kind of life for his son but the situation did not stop them to live.

Nothing can compare with lessons of life they have learned during their struggle. The situation and the knowledge they gained from the said situation are so relevant that it caused their relationship to grow more not just as father and son but also as life long companion. The father tried his best to keep his son from bad situations and even hid his sickness from his son just so he could live as much as normal he can be without the threats of death on their way. Also, the father taught his son ways on how to survive in such devastating condition. He taught his child how to place bullets in a gun and how to pull a trigger just in case that he will need it against bad guys. Personally, the father learned that he wanted the best for his son and for him not see death is coming near. This was proven when they found a can of soda and he let his son have it and when he was hiding his severe coughing.

On the other hand, the son taught the father the real meaning of good guys. The father was moved by the idea that his son can still offer the only food they have to an old man despite the current state they belong to and how can his kid still think that they are stealing food from grocery while all others are eating flesh of other humans just to survive. Also, the father was touched with his sons thinking of releasing imprisoned people and was not afraid to see them as enemies or food rivals.

Moreover, I think the most important part of faith in between the characters in this book is the assurance of being together that they make each other feel. Just like in real life, when someone makes us feel that we still have someone by our side that makes us believe we are still capable of doing things, we persevere. The father and son were not very much verbal with their feelings but the fact that they do not leave each other and they protect each other, their actions spoke louder about what they feel for each other. Similar with reality, we are able to endure any pain or hardship in life as long as we feel that we have our love ones by our side. They are our inspiration and we dedicate everything we do for them.
There is a certain word that belongs to a well-known and to a major language which manages to encapsulate the nature and the essence of being a femme, mujer, donna, mulher, perempuan,or frau which are words that if they are to be translated to English  these foreign words all mean to signify this English word woman. The aforementioned word that the preceding statement speaks of in the said statements beginning, in relation to how this word tells us about what a woman is, what a woman might be, what a woman can be or what a woman should not be, is the familiar Oriental word, yin.
This word, yin, is a Chinese word that denotes the meaning of a number of adjectives such as obtuse, intriguing, savvy, sly, deceptive, hidden, chilly and concealed. If, for example, a person desires to produce an expository text about women and about how women relate to each other and interact with each other within a particular society in order to discover the effect or the effects of this societys culture on what may be either facts, myths, or misconceptions about women yin could very well be the main source of this papers fundamental theory.  In yin, in this single word yin, there is much to find in its very meaning on what defines scholastic matters which pertain to feminism, feminist theories and practices, and gender psychology.
In the two paragraphs above, the aim of this paper has been subtly revealed and introduced. This paper aims to discuss what is apparent and non-apparent in how females interact with each other. Analyzing female-to-female interactions functions for this papers objective, an objective which can be stated here in this way  to present which aspects of gender psychology with special focus on the female gender- have remained unchanged. The goal of this analytical text is that of locating just how women form interactive unions which lead women towards a specific social position, one that is ultimately defined by empowerment. This paper makes use of two kinds of artistic genres in order to obtain the actualization of its aim, objective, and goal. Of the said kinds of genres, one is a literary genre (Trifles by Susan Glaspell) while the other, a film, stems from popular forms of entertainment media (Dolores Claiborne).

Case One  Glaspell vs Alkaly, Holstein and Marsh
Susan Glaspells Trifles is an embodiment of yin. Glaspells Trifles is also the anti-yin. In Glaspells play, the obvious dramatic situation represents the denotative meanings of yin because readers of the said play are able to fully encounter the deep significance of yin towards the end of Trifles. The firm and decisive actions of Glaspells Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters seem to communicate that the essence of yin, what is obtuse, intriguing, savvy, sly, deceptive, hidden, chilly and concealed in the play is to be found in that box that Mrs. Hale takes with her as she and Mrs. Peters prepare to leave the abode of Mrs. Wright. Yet, what Mrs. Hale decides to do holds the meaning of anti-yin in an almost undeniable way.
   It is too big. She opens box, starts to take bird out, cannot touch it,
    goes to pieces, stands there helpless.
    Sounds of a knob turning in the other room. Mrs. Hale snatches the box
   and puts it in the pocket of her big coat. (941)
These female characters, Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale, decide to commit a crime with very little hesitation. These fictitious women coldly steal from justice and the law. These fictional characters chose to do what common criminals often do- almost as if Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale had merely acted on a whim in order to give way to freedom, freedom for the character of Mrs. Wright. Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale albeit their being fictional women in a work of fiction, inadvertently lead the readers or the viewers of Trifles to this particular conclusive judgment these women are neither to be sanctioned nor are they to be regarded as undesirable members of society. Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale stand for everything that is righteous even as the plays reader and viewers are not impervious to the highly paradoxical significance of Mrs. Hales and Mrs. Peters joint decision. Within the realm of a fictional reality that had been artfully created by Glaspell for dramatic plot of Trifles, it is apparent that women shall unite against violence, against injustice, against abuse, against degradation, against oppression, against marginalization, and against the sanctimonious habits of men, when women find good reason to act in ways which contradict the many misconceptions about them. Such misconceptions can be attributed to the many centuries of having women find themselves living in cultural environments which chose to have women suffer the weakness forced on them by men because of patriarchy, masochism, and male chauvinism.
What is not apparent in Trifles in relation to how females form interactive unions in order for them to stand where women can only be appraised as being empowered members of society, capable of enduring the effects of mens follies those follies which are likely to cause damage-, capable of surpassing men in reference to the very height and reach of male deception, in the simplest of ways and in a quaint fashion that conceals the depths of malice and mischief which women can verily fall into.
Sheriff Do you want to see what Mrs. Peters is going to take in (The Lawyer picks up the apron, laughs)
Country Attorney  Oh, I guess theyre not very dangerous things the ladies have picked out.  (Moves a few things about, disturbing the quilt pieces which
cover the box. Steps back) No. Mrs. Peters does not need supervising. For that
matter a sheriffs  wife is married to the law. Ever think of it that way, Mrs. Peters ( 941)

In Glaspells Trifles, the fictional women instinctively unite for a good reason. Together, Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hales create an end where there is a triumph gained because they are women who are believed to be weak, so much so that they are unwittingly allowed to commit a crime and the crime which these fictional females choose to commit for a noble reason, begets a kind of sheer poignancy due to the feminine nuances (tears, sympathy, fickle mindedness, impulsive action) portrayed by   Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hales in order to strategically unveil that one biblical allusion which allows for Glaspells Trifles to remain relevant, like how a poet is rendered immortal and without question always only due to the small detail  of his being or her being a poet.
Mrs. Hale and the box that she takes is Eve and the apple in the Garden of Eden saying Come, I am woman. You must trust me. Look at me, there is nothing not to trust. And so, Adam perceives her as only a woman who is capable of no harm. In doing so, as biblical allusion would have it, Adam was the first of men, who unassumingly empowered Eve a woman who did not mean to do harm. Eve, the impulsive female who ruined paradise for Adam Eve, a woman whose crime had given way to freedom freedom for men and woman alike, in this world so far from that biblical heaven and yet because of possibility and lack of probable cause  Susan Glaspells Trifles shows us that where and when there can be freedom and how  a return to that biblical heaven occurs. Especially when it is a woman who has caused oppressive chains to unbound. Like Mrs. Hale, Mrs. Peters, Mrs. Wright and that little box.

Case Two  Susan Gaskells Trifles and Stephen Kings Dolores Claiborne
Dolores Claiborne, a film,  was released in 1995. The similarities between Trifles  and  Dolores Claiborne can be located in the nature and  significance of  the kind of friendship which was shared by Dolores Claiborne, a maid, and Dolores employer,  Vera Donovan.  In   Dolores Claiborne , viewers and readers find a fictional female character who faces the possibility of having to live out her remaining days in jail she has been accused of murdering the elderly Vera.
Like Susan Gaskells Trifles, Dolores Claiborne- the source of this film adaptation was penned by suspense writer,  Stephen King- supports the argument that females will join forces, women who unite in order to form interactive circles  will choose to commit a crime  for a noble reason and for a good reason.
Stephen Kings Dolores Claiborne, finds an unlikely ally and an unlikely friend in the person of  her employer who happens to be a female character who represents the same concepts which the yin  and the anti- yin in  Susan Gaskells Trifles pronounce in the aforementioned plays dramatic situation.

Susan Gaskells Trifles  and  Stephen Kings Dolores Claiborne both weave the biblical allusion of Eves serendipitous deception of Adam, as the delicate thread that subtly  binds images and scenes almost ever so hidden a woven thread- so that when the essentially sublime point that these artistic works share, is finally revealed, the very same paradoxical justification of a crime committed for the sake of a greater good which may come as a result of the reasonable crime inspires wonder, awe, and belief.
Dolores Claiborne is not as hermetic in nature as Susan Gaskells Trifles for the difference is contributed by the admirable tenacity of Vera Donovans character. Vera suggests what Dolores must do in order to give way to freedom. Freedom for Dolores from her abusive husband and freedom for he daughter, Selena, who has been a victim to her fathers misuse of his position in the patriarchal setting of Stephen Kings Dolores Claiborne.
Dolores realizes that she is about to enter into an understanding with Vera that has everything to do with the meaning of , conspiracy to commit a crime, and like Gaskells character, Mrs. Hale, Dolores succeeds in her fervent and passionate desire to render her chains and the chains of her daughter ultimately unbound. She uses the same feminine nuances (tears, sympathy, fickle mindedness, impulsive action) found in Gaskells Trifles to retrieve the freedom which should be hers and the freedom that must be returned to Selena. Dolores moves towards freedom with the graceful movements of a female leopard who offers the comfort of death to her husband in the likeness of a bottle of whiskey. Another trifle, another small thing that proves the enduring quality of this immortal metaphor there is freedom to be found everywhere, even in the smallest of follies made by the smallest of men whenever women decide that it shall now, all, come to an end. And society cannot help but to pardon a crime that allows for a return of some biblical Eden to the likes of abused and tormented women such as Dolores Claiborne and Mrs. Wright.

The Black Aesthetics Movement as the Blacks show of force in the Humanities

All of us have decent background about the tortuous and agonizing history of the Blacks struggle for equal treatment and regard in the United States. The bravery and unflagging spirit of the Blacks are one of the several things which readily come to mind in speaking of that fight sustained by them during those years. Before Barack Obama stepped into the scene and animated the hopeful possibility for change, many Black movements were already formed and forged to advance the cause of the Black Americans in the United States.

Particularly, the Black Aesthetic Movement aimed to promote the arts made by the Blacks. This movement targeted to swarm the he central culture that was previously dominated by the productions of the Whites. In the movies, in the television, in music, and other fields of the arts, the Whites have predominated to maintain their current status and keep the Blacks moving at par with them.

But the Black Aesthetic movement gained wind and later, little pieces of Black voices began to spring into air, slowly conglomerating into a forceful mass of Black identity and sentiments. This force is evident in the three poems we have. In Beautiful black men, Nikki Giovanni depicts the Black culture without shame and hesitance. The poem was unapologetic in incorporating the Blacks manner of speech and jargons, impressing an obvious confidence. The poem is an undeniable celebration of ones having extreme pride of the Black culture.

Nikki-Rosa, on the other hand, spoke with a more vibrant tone of pride of ones being Black. The poem suggests an awareness of the discriminating treatment which Blacks are getting from other people. Yet, this awareness does not make them want to forsake their identity or feel ashamed of it.

Lastly, the poem by Amiri Baraka speaks with more dash and grit, openly interrogating the White culture with the aim of extirpating the barriers in color which the Blacks at the unfavorable end. It challenges he Whites and called on them to look at their selves first before pointing to others and judging them

Clearly, these poems prove to success of the Black Aesthetics Movement in terms of raising the Blacks voices and putting them nearer to Whites in that linear dimension where power certainly exists.

Coal, Diamond, Jewel

In analyzing Audre Lordes poem Coal, it is important to look at the context to which it is written. Audre Lorde is a respectable black and lesbian poet who writes about themes centering on race and women. In Coal, the theme on race, specifically about being Black, is being addressed. It is safe to assume that the persona may have been Lorde herself or a similar woman of color. It is also common knowledge that for a long time, being Black or colored in a world dominated by people with white skin makes the former a less desirable race, at least to people who think this is so.

The first line, word and letter of the poem already carry with it a lot of weight. I (1) suggests taking a stand and acknowledging the self. The line break after I further emphasizes the fact that I can and will indeed stand alone, both in paper as it is written and figuratively as the persona undergoes a process of self-discovery. This is followed by the lines the total black, being spoken from the earths inside (2-3) which not only states matter-of-factly the absolute being of the persona as one who is black but also positions the persona as one who is still inside or constrained by the demands of what can be called the outside.

The poem moves on to discuss the many kinds of open (4). Given what is provided in the first three lines, the personas decision to talk about the kinds of open (4) gives the idea that there is a struggle in the inside to break free and go to the outside through the open. It can be further implied that the persona is looking for a medium of self-expression. It is here that the use of symbols takes into action. The open can be how a diamond comes into a knot of flame (5) or how sound comes into a words, coloured by who pays what for speaking (6-7). The line break after coloured (6) again gives weight to the theme of the poem.

In the following line, the image of the diamond and the words are again mentioned but this time the words are likened to a diamond on glass windows (8-9). Furthermore, the words are also likened to stapled wagers in a perforated book (11-12). We see in these two symbols how great the impact of words is, especially of the first where the diamond breaks through the glass. The lines Some words live in my throat breeding like adders (16-17) highlight the inner struggle of the persona, whose medium of self-expression is words that need to be spoken or written. She finds that these words will explode through my lips like young sparrows bursting from shell (19-20).

At this point there are already many words and situations that symbolize the binary of lightness and darkness. From coal, black and inside, the poem moves on to describe the sun, diamond, and a young sparrow being born. To liken this to the persona, the poem becomes a way of being reborn, and more aptly so for the rebirth is happening through words. In the lines Some words bedevil me (21-22) and Love is a word, another kind of open (23) one can see the variety of emotions a word or a string of words can bring about. And so, the persona uses words to free her self from the earths inside (3). It is through her usage of words and experiences with words that the persona comes to terms with who she truly is.

And so, when the persona says that Love is a word (23), readers know that she is choosing the emotion of love rather than how one is bedeviled (22) by words. It is more of an acceptance of who one is, loving ones self, and perceiving ones self as worthy of being loved that makes the journey to the outside less of a daunting task. The newfound confidence of the persona is evident as it closes with I am Black because I come from the earths inside Now take my word for jewel in the open light (25-26). The word Black is now capitalized, emphasizing that the transformation of the persona from coal to the jewel did not change her being black. It in fact embraces her color and views it with grandeur, as one would do to a jewel. These symbols make this poem more compelling.

Shays Perspective of Allison Healing Process

In the course of a persons life, he or she is able to experience different trials, conflicts and issues. There are instances that the experiences of the person create huge difference in their perspectives, values, personalities and interests. Furthermore, experiences are important parts of individuals life in order develop for the better. However, there are also instances that change could create negative results. Moreover, this paper would be providing different information regarding the healing process of various persons depending on the experiences that they had. Therefore, different literatures written by Dorothy Allison such as Two to Three Things I Know for Sure as well as Skin Talking About Sex, Class And Literature are different literatures which discusses same issues with ones self. In addition to this Odysseus in America, a book written by John Shay shall also be discussed in order to attain an analysis of the different experiences of characters in the book written by Allison. Thus, the investigation regarding the topic of healing shall be focused.

In the book Two to Three Things I Know for Sure, Dorothy Allison highlights social class as the ability to be empowered and be abused. Those who are seen as poor are often judged and abused in order for higher social classes to be empowered and feel better about themselves. On the other hand, it is very significant to also view Skins Taking About Sex and Literature as a book which provides series of essays which will mentions the issue of being different. Hence being different leads to seclusion later on unaccepted in the society. Furthermore, looking at the issues being discussed it is very evident that social class as well the society plays a huge role in the life of a person.

Similar to what is mentioned by Jonathan Shay, war veterans had widely experienced different traumas after the war. During the war, they are able to see deaths and kill individuals who they do not even know. War veterans also experienced losing different people who had became their friends during the time of war. In addition to this, war veterans often experience paranoia of danger in different places even at their own home. It is written by Allison in the book Two to Three Things I Know for Sure mentions that the character escapes from her own house in order to feel free and relieved from people who are often judging and abusing her due to her social class. Moreover, such kind of criticism towards other people is very important in the psychological state of these people. Being at the receiving end of negative criticisms makes a person unable to trust others and isolate him- or herself from society. Thus, she is often yearning to have a place where she could be herself without any qualms. Through traveling and walking in different areas outside of her community, it is clear that her exploration somehow means freedom in her perspective. Through the stories she makes up, the character becomes free. Unlike the moments when she is within her home or community, the girl feels free to talk to anyone and experience everything for no one knows her (Allison, 20).

Hence, the character needs to be healed for she often feels untrusting and vulnerable towards other people.
The main characters desire for freedom, can be explained by the experiences of the soldiers discussed in Jonathan Shays Odysseus in America Combat Trauma and the Trials of Homecoming. According to Shay, since society has its unstated norms, people tend to criticize individuals (159). To justify his claim, Shay cites the soldiers in different wars as examples. People from the war are very sensitive in terms of their achievements and experiences. For instance, the American soldiers who are unable to go home to the United States with success are often criticized by the community. Likewise, during the Korean War, soldiers were seen as individuals weaker than other soldiers put to war for they were seen as weak against their enemies.  On the other hand, there were soldiers in the Vietnam War who were persecuted by the people when they came home due to the lives they took during the war. Although the United States was triumphant in the wars, the number of people who died in the war is important. Hence, soldiers are seen as monsters and murderers. Such kind of judgment and experiences significantly influence the psychological state of soldiers to the point that they become untrusting of other people (Shay 154-155). This is one of the many symptoms of PTSD (Post-traumatic Stress Disorder).

PTSD is a common psychological disorder that manifest among soldiers who survived the horrors of war.  There are moments when a veteran soldier bursts out from his peacefulness and disrupts the silence of the community. There are also instances when they become paranoid and deal with daily matters as if they are still fighting in the war. In the book Skin Talking About Sex and Literature it is very clear that there are cases in which a PTSD patient could go ballistic due to simple reasons. The people affected by this psychological disease are paranoid and helpless regarding their emotions. Furthermore, impulsive reactions to situations tend to result in violent and negative results (Allison 59). Dorothy presented the vulnerability of a person who is seen by the society as different. Through being different, cases of insecurity, vulnerability within a certain society. Hence, this kind of conflict with ones self results to seclusion and non trust to other people.

Therefore, these kinds of issues are important to be healed.

Mention first how is healing related to the previous paragraph and that there is a need to be healed ( Healing is similar to accepting reality. Though past experiences are important in the present, accepting former actions is important to attain freedom in the present. To achieve this, Shay suggests that soldiers who recently came from war must undergo a purification process after the battle (244). Purification involves attaining connection with oneself and with ones spirit, which is important to let go of and accept the experiences that have been psychologically distressing for the individual. Through the realization that people need help, ones distrust and paranoia shall be healed. To heal oneself, Shay also suggests that one should be at home (246). For a person who does not trust and have faith during certain situations, it is important to be in a place where an individual is contented and calm. Hence, similar to the characters of the books provided, healing is an important process which must be attained by issues at hand. The characters are chattered by the societys judgments and standards. Looking upon this, acceptance and healing must be done to take away the past that still hurt the characters of the stories.

Healing is an important process that individuals have to go through, especially those who have been under psychological strain. One must face certain disturbances and irregularities in life such as disasters, heartaches, rejection, seclusion and the likes in order to heal from different kinds of psychological issues. In Allisons Two or Three Things I Know for Sure, it is very clear that she wrote for people who suffered or are suffering still from emotional or physical violence. Through violence and abuse, people become vulnerable and tattered. Thus, upon experiencing such kind of hurt could lead to revenge or different violent reactions. Furthermore, acceptance is also important to the steps of healing and forgiveness. A person must be willing to accept that experiences happen for a reason and such reason could only be realized in the future. Also, it is important for a person to show respect towards another. In cases of psychological issues, most individuals hate themselves because they are unlike others.  Hence, while people who experienced violence are mostly shattered, it is only through respect and openness will other individuals could be able to resolve conflicts.

Morality in Kerouacs on the Road and Hemmingways the Sun also Rises

Kerouac and Hemmingway consistently deal with topics of value and morality in the dimension of poverty, promiscuity, lack of vision, criminality, luminal life, alcoholism and disregard of societal values of the traditional American society. As they present the decay in the society through conduct, Hemingway dwells on the effects of the World War I on the moral standards of  modern America while Kerouac takes the perspective of improper moral structures that relaxes peoples value on moral standard. On the Road by Kerouac is a riveting account about the new nature of humanity as everybody in the society is morally deceitful and naturally dishonest. On the other hand, The Sun also Rises by Hemmingway demonstrates the futility of life as human being struggles with effects of the post war as they embody the feeling of emptiness and lack of meaning in life.

These two novels narrows down to the question of how morality and value systems are disregarded in the modern society. In light of this, Hemmingway handles his moral and value themes in terms of destruction of sex, aimlessness among members of the society, male insecurity, false friendship and excessive irresponsible drinking. Similarly, Kerouac portrays the American society as having lost of moral value through themes like madness, drug and alcoholic abuse, sexual immorality and criminality.

The Sun also Rises treats the theme of morality through aimlessness in the generation that is lost. Hemmingway uses irony to satirize the follies of the aimlessness that characterizes the modern American society as a result of the World War I. According to Wagner (2005), the traditional concept of morality gave meaning to the men and women of America. However, after the First World War, the concept of morality became lost and human being began wandering aimlessness in the society in what is inarguably a meaningless world. In light of this, aimlessness is a moral question that should be avoided because it leads people to lack focus, lack ambition and lack dream. As a result, men and women in the society operate on absurd angles since their time is spent on inconsequential activities like drinking and engaging in all kinds of wickedness. For example, Jake and his friends in the Sun also Rises lead empty lives because they constantly party and drink to afford some meaning and attain a bit of happiness. Although this is not explicitly physical, Hemmingway was in a way implying that Jake and his friends portray aimlessness through their emotional and mental lives (Hemmingway, 1995).

Similarly, Kerouac addresses morality by exploring dissatisfaction and restlessness that is rooted in the insanity of beat generation. In this case, characters experience the need to move through time and space a concept that originates from dissatisfaction. For instance, as Dean is motivated to move through time, Sal move in line with space (Kerouac, 1957). However, it is plausible to argue that their movement is aimless and that is why they do not find satisfaction wherever and whenever they go. As a result, Dean and Sal finds no true heaven after their traveling comes to an end and it is even more evident that lack of focus and absurd lifestyle is manifested in romantic relationships of characters. They feel more dissatisfied with women a factor which sets them in the mood of a variety of women (Kerouac, 1957).

The Sun also Rises can be seen to resonate the decline in value system of the American society through male insecurity. Hemmingway uses satire to expose the decay system of the society. This is through how the First World War provided way for the reevaluation of what is perceived to be masculine. Before the war, the masculine ideals bordered the precincts of bravery and stoicism which had some relevance in the brutal context of the war. As a consequence, soldiers suffered a great deal as the enemy raided them. In light of this, they became more insecure due to the conceptualization that they depended on luck and not bravery for their survival (Wagner, 2005). The realities of the war therefore undermined the traditional concept of masculinity. For instance, Jakes manhood is undermined as a result of the injuries he sustained on his male organ thus representing the cultural change of the value system. He is burdened b the feeling of being less than a man thereby nursing a strong sense of inadequacy (Hemmingway, 1995). In addition, other veterans in the novel The Sun also Rises feel a great sense of insecurity due to their manhood. Hemmingway underscores this theme by highlighting that the male insecurity become stronger when characters became envious of others (Nigel, 2005). For example, Jake as well as his  friends are unhappy with Cohn and subsequently abuse him because of his engagement in their unmanly behaviors because he follows Brett around (Hemmingway, 1995).Jake, Bill and Mike are unsure of their masculinity and they somehow cope with their fear by attacking  people like Cohn for behaving in the traditional masculine way.

Moreover, Kerouacs On the Road embodies this reversed value system by portraying sadness and insecurity in the world. For instance, Sal understands that the American society makes one constantly sad. In light of this, Sal sees everybody to be sad and as the source of his sadness. Worst of all is that his own dreams resonate the whole aspect of sadness (Kerouac, 1957).According to Swartz (1999), the element of sadness in the lives of the American people is a question of loneliness and failure to embrace societal values of togetherness as well as connecting with those around through warm dialogue. Kerouac closely mirrored what Hemmingway dealt with because sadness in any community is a feature in the relationship of men and women. Arguably, Sadness manifests the understanding of being low in spirits and given that it is more evident in the beat generation, it brings out the element of being defeated in life. A case in point is when Sal yearns for a warm and poignant connection with women (Kerouac, 1957).This explains how he is not sure of his position in the society and views life on a pessimistic angle a factor that manifests itself through sadness.

Another important point is the question of sex and how it is destructive in the modern American society. In the Sun also Rises, Hemmingway presents a clear picture of how the aspect of sex is not only powerful but also very destructive. Accordingly, Nigel (2005) notes that this destructive nature of sex comes out clear in the way characters in this novel expresses strong sexual jealousy. For instance, because of the untamed sexual jealousy, Cohn is forced to violate the principles of value and consequently attack Romero, Jake and Mike (Hemmingway, 1995). In addition, the illicit cravings for sex block Brett from building a healthy relationship with Jake. Primarily, these two examples show that sex weakens the honor that Cohn has as well as the love between Jake and Brett. Moreover, Brett engages in multiple sexual relationships with men and does not want to get serious with any of them. This constantly nags her, makes both Jake miserable and leads Cohn to be violent (Hemmingway, 1995). In this view, Hemmingway clarifies that the contemporary society has given leeway to its members to engage in perverse sexual behaviors with come with daring effects. Arguably, Hemmingway also underscores that with the advent of independence and gender equity, many women are becoming more sexually perverse.

On the same note, Kerouac in On the Road, treats his theme of sexual immorality by exploring inability of the characters in his novel to differentiate between love and sex. The understanding here is that in the American society, moral values have been swept under the carpet thus making Americans to weaken the values of the marriage institution. According to Upton (2003), there is no such a thing like respect for marriage in the novel On the Road because sex overrides every factor that leads to marriage and love. In this case, lust and sexual escapades forms the order of the day and those who engage in these immoral activities claim to be expressing love. For instance, Deans is so lustful that he wants to marry every woman he lusts (Kerouac, 1957). On this premise, Kerouac presents sex without attachment which reduces the spiritual dimension of sex. The fact that Dean lusts after every woman suggests a perverse notion that women are sexual objects to satisfy the sexual desires of men.

Alcoholism and drug abuse is another element of moral decay. In the Sun also Rises, Hemmingway shows all characters being alcoholic therefore symbolizing the rottenness of the society. Almost all the friends of Jake are drunkards because they drink in excess at everywhere they go. Somehow, it is through this excessive drinking that they promote their escapist tendency. Wagner (2005) outlines that it drinking which gives Jake and his friends a sense of purpose and satisfaction. This implies that Hemmingway wanted to underscore on the consequences of excessive drinking because as seen in the Sun also Rises, alcoholism only brings out the worst these characters especially mike. For instance, he turns out to be nasty, intoxicated and violent (Hemmingway, 1995). In light of this, alcoholism in the Sun also Rises disadvantages the mental well being of a person and thus heightening the confusion, sadness and lack of purpose that plagues Jake as well as his friends. This is construed on the premise that drinking helps the characters to avoid the reality in their lives.

On the same note, Kerouac in On the Road shares that alcoholism is a healthy activity if taken in moderation. This is evident in the fact that there are a variety of alcohols and a few characters who abuse alcoholism like Dean and his missing father are the ones who suffer a myriad of problems like poverty. Upton (2003) underlines that alcoholism is a dangerous venture if it takes the priority of food as well as other necessities in the life of a character. The relationship of Sal and Dean is shaped by alcoholism because, they comes a sharp contrast when the two dreams (Kerouac, 1957). Their actions, behaviors and dreams when they are sober become totally different when they are drunk. Alcoholism therefore forms the foundation of madness which is seen to aggravate the question of absurdity and lack of focus in the society.

Another facet of comparison in the morals themes in the two literary pieces lies in the paradigm of false friendship. Hemmingway embodies the element of friendship to be built around deceptive and selfish motives. A number of these friendships are found on no affection. As Jake met the team manager, and they planned to meet the following morning so that they continue with their conversation, Jake skives the meeting on the ground that he will never see the manager again (Hemmingway, 1995). Another dark false friendship is exemplified in Jake and Cohn. With regard to the values of friend, Jake is false to his friend. Although Cohn likes Jake, Jake is false and operates in a mask.  He harbors some hostility to Cohn which increases and more vivid in jakes silent jealousy to Cohn as pertains Brett (Hemmingway, 1995). The inability to build true friendship jeopardizes the social survival of Jake and his friends. It is ironical that Hemmingway that atrocities, jealousy and opportunistic characteristics form an immoral pedestals upon which Hemmingway treats this theme.

In the same vein, Kerouac gives us a glimpse on the nature of friendship based on hero worship. A case in point is Sal who positions Dean on certain class, struggles to equal his friends (Kerouac, 1957).Although Sal and Dean are friends, it is evident that they are uncomfortable with each other especially when Sal thinks that Dean has a low profile. In this case, their friendship suffers but somehow, Dean makes up by building an intellectual friendship with Carlo. This somehow heals his wounded heart because, unlike ah of Sal, it is based on mutual interest (Kerouac, 1957).

However, Hemmingway differs slightly with Kerouac in addressing the moral themes with regard to criminality and spirituality. For example, as Hemmingway portrays that characters loses on morals in terms of failure in communication, Kerouac address the aspect of failed vision of the American dream. In the Sun also Rise, the conversation that Jake and his friends engage in does not mirror honesty. They constantly struggle to hide their feelings all under the cover of civilization.  In addition, it is clear that these friends are tormented by the effects of the war but can not mutually share this in a mutual communication (Hemmingway, 1995).

However, the instance of true communication where the characters speaks their true feeling comes out under the influence of alcohol. For instance, when Mike is drunk, that is the time he can tell Cohn how he detests his presence. According to Wagner (2005), the question of lack of communication does not provide ground for growth in the society. As such, members of the society constantly live in the dark not understanding others and not sharing their feeling which inarguably facilitates the growth of the society I light of social, economic and cultural dimensions. Hemmingway thus suggests that in lie of the traditional value, The Sun also Rises mirrors the concept of lack of unity, individualism, and selfishness all which do not contribute to the well being of the society.

Contrastively, Kerouac addresses this aspect in a different model of lack of vision for the American dream. Sal sees the American society through various lenses which leaves him comparing it with other worlds he regards better like Mexico (Kerouac, 1957).According to Swartz (1999), this gives Sal no chance of constructively and positively thinking of how to build his society. The American dream of a sound economic development thus is shattered by this retrogressive thinking. As a result, the lack of vision is analogous to lack of dream a factor that introduces other vices and immoral activities like criminality, distorted versions of reality and poverty. Policemen become so abusive and power hungry thereby showing that they think little bout these people in their service and the ideals of the society. This nature further fuels criminality witch sees Dean in jail. Moreover, characters think that the only cause of their problems and misfortunes which arguably is a distorted version of reality. All these formulations narrow down to poverty which appears to be everywhere according to the perception of Sal. Lack of vision towards the American dream has left many characters homeless camping on the roadside and depending on the musician to entertain them. Lack of vision also lands Sal in deep poverty because when he travels, he can not purposely manage his money and thus squanders it (Kerouac, 1957). Sal and his friends finally ca not establish any middle ground to earn a living and relies on asking his Aunt for money. All these are a feature and effect of lack of vision for the America dream.

To recap, both Hemmingway and Kerouac deal with moral themes that resonate the traditional notion of value system. Most of their understanding and portray of these themes is similar because they attribute to what is sociological applicable in the contemporary society. Such themes affect the American society in a myriad of ways ranging from lack of vision for the American dram, lack of believe in self, deceptive attitudes and friendship, opportunism, despair and lack of communication. However, there is a slight difference in how they address this themes which is in their style which evidently narrows down to failed vision as in the case of Kerouac as well as failed communication in the case of Hemmingway. The two facets of morality contribute to the unity and strength of the social, economic and cultural institution in the society. Their absence paves way for the manifestation of other vices like individualism, poverty, and criminality and reduces characters to leading luminal lives.

The classical lamp and pieces of Indian culture in Aladdin and the magic lamp

The tale of Aladdin and the Magic lamp is regarded as one of the best fairy tales in the vast archives of childrens literature. Aladdins adventures which taught him to be brave and decide for himself has never ceased in fascinating readers of any age all these times. Perhaps it helps that Aladdin has overcome his internal weaknesses in order to have a happy ending with the love of his life. Moreover, it might have also helped that the setting of this fantastic tale was a place known for its exotic culture and superb scenic spots  India.

Since Aladdin and the magic lamp is a fairy tale that is, it is supposed to have fantastic elements that can provide an exhilarating twist to the story, authenticity in terms of cultural presentation is already troublesome. First, there was no large-scale presentation of the Indian culture to begin with. We only get the idea that we are led in an Indian context through the help of the physical appearances of the character, the titles of the royalty members and the architectures of the castles.  Definitely, the totality of a culture can not be encompassed merely by these details. It involves a whole lot of things that range from the concrete to the abstract. It is comprised of the traditions and beliefs of the people, their distinct rituals, food, literatures, among others. If we go on in mentioning all the other components of culture, we will only see how the story Aladdin and the magic lamp has fell way short in covering the culture of India.

In trying to share to the readers the culture of India, the author of the story mainly stayed on a perspective that comes from the inside. Except of the settings which resulted from magical transformations, quite a voluminous part of the storys setting was in India. By using this technique and working from that perspective, the author became more able to control the presentation of the culture. The cultural markers the author added have helped the readers identify with the Indian culture. The distinctly Indian look of the characters and the grotesque forms of the royal castles can make the readers effortlessly realize that they are reading a story reflecting the Indian culture.

In terms of promoting certain cultural stereotypes, Aladdin and the magic lamp ahs eventually lacked. It was already said earlier that the story itself lacked in authentic cultural details. That is the reason why there was also not much room to promote cultural stereotypes. For how can you promote something when that something are supposed to promote is lacking The only notable cultural detail that was seemingly promoted in the story is the stereotypical perception of Indians appearances. They have dark skins and rarely have straight hair. These traits can be visualized in Aladdin and his loved one.

Lastly, it was the Indian culture that was attempted to be described n this story. Although the fact that it was a fairytale spoiled its chance to optimize the presentation of that culture. The characters looks, the specialized setting and their costumes  these all point to the Indian elements which are unmistakably inserted in this classic tale.


In order to answer these questions, we discuss and analyze that until the end of the story, the narrator has a hard time connecting with any individual, especially his wife. Throughout the story he is deploring about his wife, and her allegedly irrational obsession and companionship with, the blind man Robert. He tosses in sarcastic remarks about her verses, her ex-husband, and much else. He does not seem to be connected to his wife. (Carver, 2007)

In Cathedral, Robert, the blind man, could be said to represent the narrators that is the husbands prejudices.  Prejudice, in spite of everything, is a sort of blindness.  The husband, as the story continues, discovers that Robert is not just a blind man he is a special human being, one who occurs to joke, smokes and wear a beard. (Carver, 2007)

Immediately upon Roberts entrance, the narrator offers him a drink, and mentions that liquor is a bit of a pastime for him.  Possibly, the narrator is a drinker.  They resolve in and attractive rapidly have some drinks.  This assists to relax up the narrator a bit it places him at ease, and makes him less anxious about Roberts visit.  They smoke marijuana after dinner and that relaxed the narrator even more. He becomes easy-going and comfortable with Robert, although normally he is an uptight and picky man. This provides him to be open to the experience that ends up impacting him so significantly, the drawing of the cathedral with his eyes closed.  If he hadnt been calm and alleviated through liquor and marijuana he might not have allowed to letting a man catch his hand and direct him through drawing a cathedral.  The smokes and drinks relieve his apprehension and through the drawing of the cathedral, he has a very subterranean experience.  He is able to glimpse certain things from somebody elses perspective for the first time in his life.  (Carver, 2007)

The narrator has a life-changing experience, or an epiphany, at the end of Cathedral, while endeavoring to notify Robert what a cathedral appears to be. The narrator, when first endeavoring to interpret what the cathedral looks like, fumbles for words. However, upon Roberts support, loosens up, and sketches the cathedral with Robert, directing his hand with a pencil onto a paper. (Carver, 2007)
The world of Allen Ginsbergs  Howl  is equal parts vibrant and bleak. The world he represents is not clear-cut but an amalgamation of drugs, sex, madness, desperation, celebration, and individuality. The last is perhaps the most important, as it is a unifying factor in the modern experience of self and the world. Through the poem, he seems to be seeking a way in which to portray the new ideas of culture, art, and life that he sees embodied within mans experience of the world. Ginsbergs world, as presented in  Howl,  is peopled with madness, drugs, music, and a kind of mysticism. In many respects, when one looks beyond the strength of the imagery in such phrases  reincarnate in the ghostly clothes of jazz in the goldhorn shadow of the band  (ll.77), there is a concrete world beneath.

There is no doubt that Ginsberg employs the use of hyperbole but only as a way to give new truth and depth to old concepts of society, art, and culture as whole.  Howl,  can be tied into the post-modern ideas of combined fiction, realism, multiculturalism, and experimentation through the combined non-fictional (autobiographical) elements of Ginsbergs personal life with an awareness of changing and expanding cultural ideas as represented by post-World War II society and culture, which create a new perspective on humanity. By representing his own friends and world through this series of complex imagery, Ginsberg seems to be attempting to mythologize the world in order to make it more real. Jack Kerouac, Carl Solomon, even Ginsberg himself becomes a product of experience and, more importantly, the interpretation of experience. Ginsberg shows through his unique, free flowing form the necessity of re-ordering the world within the context of the contemporary awareness of the world.

Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry (by Mildred Taylor)

Look out there, Cassie girl. All that belongs to you. You aint never had to live on nobodys place but your own and long as I live and the family survives, youll never have to (Taylor, Mildred D., Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry 6).

I choose this passage because, through it, I can sense the strong determination of the Logans, particularly the father, revealing the pride and self confidence that the family carries.

The passage reveals that the author is giving importance to the family values. This fits the theme of the story strong family ties. Throughout the story, the Logans experience extremely unfair treatments from the whites. In the center of all this, the author infuses balance to the situation by establishing healthy relationship within the family that allows the Logans to survive and stay on course. It bonds them to act as one, to be united in overcoming any difficulties. Strong family attachment keeps them rational during turmoil, allowing themselves to endure in humility if only to avoid further trouble. Family value also permits them to know the meaning of sacrifice as Papa burns their cotton field to save TJ Avery from being killed by an angry mob of whites. TJ is not a Logan, but Papa values the friendship of Stacy and TJ, so he considers the Avery boy as a part of his family. Good relationship in the family protects the children from the harshness of racism. It does not attempt to conceal the reality from their young minds rather it keeps their self-respect and confidence intact.

The passage also typifies the setting of the story, which is during the Great Depression period.

As the black population is the most affected by the economic slump, it shows the importance of the land for their survival. Since the Logans own a parcel of land, they suffer constant harassment from Mr. Granger. However, Papa is determined to keep it no matter what the consequences may be. This he promises to Cassie.

We Logans dont have much to do with white folks. You know why Cause white folks mean trouble. (Ib 134)

I like this passage for its straightforwardness. It directly labels the whites as the bad people in the story. It does not even contain any trace of remorse or attempt to conceal the truth.

The author portrays the gloomy mood of the novel through, among others, the dialogues of her characters, and this passage is one of those. Uttered by Papa as he talks with Stacy regarding his sons friendship with a white boy, this statement exemplifies the discrimination being experienced by the blacks. They are struggling to survive the depression, but their struggle is made even more difficult by the rampant racism. The Logans and other African-American in the novel undergo discrimination in almost all fronts in the workplace, in stores, in public places and in schools. This is preceded by the burning of Mr. Berry and highlighted by the beating of TJ Avery. Taylor has successfully presented a dark picture of life during the depression.

The passage also reveals the characterization of the story. The white people are depicted as mean and brutal individuals who are continuously harassing their black neighbors, particularly the Logans. It seems that their sole role is to antagonize the blacks. There are whites who side with the colored people, like Jeremy Simms and Mr. Jamison, but they are greatly overwhelmed by the brutal light-skinned individuals. This kind of portrayal can be seen as the authors way of expressing her bitterness towards racial discrimination. Perhaps, as a black American herself, the author might have suffered injustice during her time, and the novel is her way of letting her anger out. On the other hand, the author puts a balance by portraying the Logans as confident black individuals who are no pushovers. From the oldest Logan down to the youngest, nobody in the family is afraid to confront a white person face to face. This is probably an attempt of the author to give the African-Americans strong characters.

I had never liked T.J., but he had always been there, a part of my life, just like the mud and the rain. Yet the mud and the rain and the dust would all pass. What had happened to T.J. in the night I did not understand, but I knew that it would not pass. And I cried for those things which had happened in the night and would not pass (Ib 163).

I choose this passage for its innocence, which is only appropriate for a nine year old narrator. Good thing that Taylor does not portray Cassie as a wise character who knows everything that transpires around her.
The passage proves that the story is seen in the point of view of a nine year old girl, Cassie. Taylor may have put a young girl as the narrator of the story to lighten the effect of the great depression and racial discrimination. The narration is comprised mainly on the perception of a young mind, and the factual information is provided by her old folks. Cassie is naive, and she has many questions regarding racism. He cannot understand why the whites get all the nice things, and the blacks are always the losers who are forced to settle for leftovers. This naivety gives realism to the story as the author does not allow the gloomy mood of the novel to deprive the young protagonist the natural characteristics appropriate for a child of her age.

Taylor is clever to fit Cassie with loving parents who provide answers to her questions.

The passage is also appropriate for the plot that shows series of events and conflicts that go without being solved. Cruelty of racism happens everywhere in the story, yet justice is nowhere to be found. The burning of Mr. Berry and other unsettled conflicts accumulated until they become almost impossible to deal with already. The climax of the story, the beating of TJ, is another event that finds no solution. Fittingly, the novel starts with Cassie wondering about the importance of the land, and it ends leaving the narrator confused and unable to do anything but feel sorry for all the victims of injustice that her tender mind cannot grasp.

Comparative Analysis of the Moral Issues in Shakespeares Hamlet and Sophocles Antigone

Right and wrong. Good versus bad. Those are the conflicting beliefs that can be found within the human mind. Every day, humans are confronted with this conflict in relation to their every thought and action corresponding to a specific situation. The choices one makes reflects on ones belief and how its interpreted. The issue of morality is a point of obsession for people around the world. What is the right thing to do What makes a specific act morally right from an individuals perspective and wrong in others eyes These are questions that, I believe, can never be fully answered. In this paper, I will discuss the moral issues in Shakespeares play Hamlet and Sophocles tragedy Antigone. The two classical works show the role of moral obligations and moral conflict in the actions of the main characters whereas Antigones moral values resolutely demand that she obey the laws of the gods over the laws of man, while Hamlet struggles with the moral conflicts that surround his desire to avenge his fathers death. This paper will also discuss the conflict found in the two plays as pertaining to family and law, revenge, injustice, and so on.

In the next part of this paper, I will provide a background story of the two plays in order to get a better understanding of what this paper is all about followed by a comparative analysis of the moral issues that can be observed in the two plays.

William Shakespeares Hamlet  is a tragic tale of ghosts, murder and the quest for vengeance. The character of Prince Hamlet of Denmark can be described as enigmatic and complex and is the subject of detailed analysis more than any other character in the English literature. In the beginning of the play, we see Prince Hamlet of Denmark troubled by everything that is going on around him. His fathers sudden death the chance to ascend the throne in his fathers place taken away from him when his late fathers brother, Claudius, was proclaimed as King of Denmark and, his disgust at the hasty marriage between his mother, Queen Gertrude, and King Claudius, which he considers as incestuous. Later on, he is visited by his dead fathers ghost and is made aware of his fathers treacherous death by the hand of his brother, Claudius. As the story progresses, we find Hamlet feigning madness as part of his plot to murder Claudius his confrontation with his mother the murder of Polonius, a member of the Kings council the death of Ophelia, daughter of Polonius and the plot of Claudius to dispose of Hamlet. The tragic story ends with the duel and death of Hamlet and Laertes, son of Polonius, who wishes to avenge the death of his father from the hands of Hamlet and the death of Gertrude, Hamlets mother, and King Claudius.

Meanwhile, in Antigone by Sophocles, the opening scene of the play shows Antigone and her sister, Ismene, daughters of Oedipus, the former King of Thebes, in front of the palace gates in Thebes. The time is at daybreak on the morning after the fall of their two brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices, during the battle between Thebes and the Argives. Polyneices has sided with the Argives while Eteocles defended Thebes. The brothers die at the hands of each other and the victorious King Creon of Thebes ordered the preparation for the burial of Eteocles and, at the same time, issued an order to leave the corpse of Polyneices for the carrions to feast upon, which he thinks is fitting as Polyneices betrayed his homeland and does not deserve funeral rites or burial. Antigone, despite Creons edict, attempted to secure a burial for his brother, Polyneices. The progress of the play shows the confrontation between Creon and Antigone when he discovered what she is trying to do the confrontation between Creon and his son, Haemon, who is betrothed to Antigone and the confrontation between Creon and the blind prophet, Teiresias. The tragic play ends with the death of Antigone and Haemon the suicide of Eurydice, wife of King Creon and the lamentation of Creon.

According to Bates (112), in the Antigone, contempt of death enables a weak maiden to conquer a powerful ruler, who, proud of his wisdom, ventures in his unbounded insolence to pit his royal word against divine law and human sentiment, and learns all too late, by the destruction of his house, that Fate in due course brings fit punishment on outrage.

In the two plays, we can see the moral issues that arose in relation to the role foisted on the protagonists. In Hamlets case, it is the role of son and avenger, while Antigones role is a loving sister and a devoted follower of the Gods.

The procrastination displayed by Hamlet with regard to getting his revenge with Claudius shows the moral struggle he is facing. In Act 2 Scene 2, Hamlet remarks
Yet I, A dull and muddy-mettled rascal, peak, Like John-a-dreams, unpregnant of my cause, And can say nothing no, not for a king, Upon whose property and most dear life A damnd defeat was made. Am I a coward Who calls me villain breaks my pate across Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face Tweaks me by the nose gives me the lie i the throat, As deep as to the lungs who does me this

In the same scene, Hamlet also exhibited doubts regarding his mission and the ghost that he saw, which can be connected to his Christian beliefs, as he contemplates
The spirit that I have seen May be the devil and the devil hath power To assume a pleasing shape yea, and perhaps Out of my weakness and my melancholy, As he is very potent with such spirits, Abuses me to damn me.

There is another scene wherein Hamlet shows his hesitation in killing Claudius seeing as he has the chance right then and there when he catches Claudius alone and praying. In Act 3 Scene 3
Now might I do it pat, now he is praying And now Ill dot. And so he goes to heaven And so am I revenged. That would be scannd A villain kills my father and for that, I, his sole son, do this same villain send To heaven.

This scene has had various interpretations by literary scholars. One notable interpretation is that Hamlet delayed the killing not because he does not want Claudius to go to heaven as a result of his deed, but rather due to the struggle that is warring inside of him where conflicting emotions attack him from every side as his desire to avenge his father clashes that killing a person is wrong.

Another evidence of the struggle being faced by Prince Hamlet concerning his cause can be seen in his remark in his most famous soliloquy in Act 3 Scene 1
To be, or not to be that is the question Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all And thus the native hue of resolution Is sicklied oer with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pith and moment With this regard their currents turn awry, And lose the name of action.

In this scene, Hamlet experiences a sense of confusion as he argues with himself about what is the right thing to do. He questions his course of action, as he debates whether to proceed with murder or to just let justice take its own time.

The character of Prince Hamlet constantly questions his cause, of whether he should fulfill the conflicting moral duties of blood revenge, the Christian ethic of not killing and leaving vengeance to God, the political duties of Machiavellis Prince, or be true to himself Shakespeares genius is to have Claudius repeatedly invoke the codes he has broken, thereby reinforcing our sympathy for Hamlets crisis and cause against his uncle (Pupavac, 2008).

On the other hand, the character of Antigone is rooted in familial love and a sense of moral righteousness. The character of Antigone represents the moral idealist who is absolutely unbending in the values that she deems eternal and imagines being more important than life itself. The moralist sacrifices efficacy for unflinching values, as opposed to the realist who sacrifices the right for the useful (ctd. in Story, 2008). Her sense of moral duty to her dead brother is so strong that, in the beginning of the play, in her conversation with her sister, she stated that
Gladly will I meet death in my sacred duty to the dead. Longer time have I to spend with them than with those who live upon the earth. Seek not to argue with me nothing so terrible can come to me but that an honored death remains. (Bates 112).

The central theme in Antigone is the relation of the law which has its sanction in political authority and the law which has its sanction in the private conscience, the relation of the obligations imposed on human beings as citizens and members of the state, and the obligations imposed on them in the home and as members of families. And both these laws presenting themselves in their most crucial form are in direct collision  (Collins, 1906).

According to Collins (1906), the decision of Antigone to choose divine law over mans law can be seen as a sacred duty in the eyes of the Greeks. Since she looks at it as a divine commission, she believes that she had a right to assert that in defying the edit of Creon, she was loyal to an unwritten law which had a higher sanction than mans will.

In terms of similarities, there are several aspects of the two plays wherein morality plays a major part. One particular aspect that can be found in both plays is how the kings equate restoration of order to their kingdom with the deaths of their perceived law disrupters. In Hamlet, King Claudius, fearing that his heinous deeds will be found out by Prince Hamlet and thus, disrupting the peace of the kingdom, orders the Prince to be escorted in England where he plots for him to be murdered once he steps on to English soil. In Act 4 Scene 3, the King is seen as sending a letter to the King of England conveying his royal wish for the death of Hamlet. On the other hand, Antigone was sentenced to death by Creon for disobeying his orders which he sees as a sign of rebellion against him. He sentenced Antigone to be led to the dungeon, where she is to die of starvation, and thus bewails her fate (Bates 116).

However, a contrast can also be seen in the way which the two kings handled the disposal of the protagonists. In Hamlet, Claudius proceeds in a treacherous manner as Prince Hamlet was unaware that the Kings orders for him to be transported to England would result in his murder. Compared to that, King Creon issued a death sentence in the form of a royal decree on Antigone for disobeying his royal orders.

The revenge theme which is the main focus in the play Hamlet can also be seen in Antigone as Creon refuses to perform burial rites on Polyneices. This is his act of revenge against the man which he thinks is right since Polyneices, a son of Thebes, turned against them.

The concepts of heroism and martyrdom, which can be seen in the two plays, as well, are also connected to morality. In Hamlets case, he believes that avenging the death of his father is the heroic thing to do and disregards the teachings of the Christian faith, in which he follows, and his duty to his living family. Meanwhile, the actions of Antigone is mostly based on self-sacrifice. She makes no attempt to conciliate Creon, but maintains throughout a most defiant attitude, glorying alike in her deed and in its penalty Antigone not merely braves but courts death (Collins, 1906).

The conflict of family and law can be seen more in the play Antigone. According to Collins (1906), the conflict lies between Antigone and Creon in what they perceived is their right. As ruler of the state, Creon was perfectly justified in issuing the edict which deprived Polyneices of his funeral rites. The young man had fallen in the act of committing the most heinous crime of which a citizen could be guilty, and Creon, as the responsible head of the state, very naturally supposed that exemplary punishment was the culprits rightful due. The decree issued with its annexed penalty became law, and as the law it was incumbent on every citizen to obey it. Antigone, on the other hand, looks at it from a family members perspective, and believes that the duty she undertook can be delegated to no one else.

Up to this point, then, both are in the right, and neither deserves punishment. Had reason and right feeling ruled Creon, he would have seen that Antigone was perfectly justified in disobeying his edict had reason ruled Antigone, she would have seen that he was perfectly justified in issuing it (Collins, 1906).

Collins (1906) further states that The terrible calamities, then, which overtake Creon are not the result of his exalting the law of the state over the unwritten and divine law which Antigone vindicates, but are the result of his harsh, imperious and intemperate character. It was his intemperance which made him impervious to the impressions which the conduct and position of Antigone ought to have made on him, which made him deaf to the appeals of Haemon, and which led him to disregard till it was too late the warnings of Teiresias it was his intemperance which was his ruin.

The role of morality in the thought and actions of the protagonists in the two plays contribute to their tragic demise. One acts on her moral obligation while the other questions and hesitates. This is what defines moral duty and moral conflict. The desire to do what is right is what prompted the protagonists into action. Collins (1906) advises us to remember that if a poet or writer is a moralist and a teacher he is primarily an artist. The writer, through his works, allows the reader or viewers to look into hisher moral values. The two plays were successful in this regard in that it made us see ourselves and determine what is right and what is wrong from a personal perspective, from a social perspective and from a divine perspective.